Angola Country Report
The business environment continues to be marred by weak infrastructure and high associated costs. The government has invested heavily in infrastructure, although these investments have declined during recent years because of lower oil revenues. A 2015 USD18-billion plan to overhaul the power grid has not been fully implemented. The power sector will remain weak in the three-year outlook, keeping operating costs in Angola high. Despite anti-corruption legislation, the risk of bribes being demanded will remain pervasive due mostly to the lack of governmental capability to fight it.
The risk of terrorism from the separatist Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC) group is heightened in parts of the Cabinda enclave, however, this poses a low risk of targeted sabotage to oil and gas operations, which are mostly offshore. Onshore operational bases are protected by private and government security forces. Army patrols, however, are at a high risk of attacks from separatist militants. Mining operations face a moderate risk of attack from illegal miners and are exposed to extortionists that operate alongside the military, especially in the Cabinda and Lunda provinces.
Armed robberies and kidnappings pose a moderate risk of death and injury in Luanda, with more reports of expatriates being targeted, especially as the economic crisis, which was brought on by a fall in oil prices, worsens. Fatalities tend to be isolated to cases of deliberate resistance in underprivileged neighbourhoods of the capital. Common problems nationally include pick-pocketing and theft from parked vehicles, although car-jacking has declined in the past few years. Kidnap for ransom risk remains low in protected compounds in Cabinda, but is now higher for expatriates in the outskirts of the capital Luanda.
A renewed outbreak of civil war is very unlikely, despite moderate risk of violence between security forces and opposition supporters and youth groups during anti-government demonstrations. Such protests are likely to occur again given the difficult economic conditions that have prevailed since the fall in the oil price, and youth frustrations over employment opportunities. The insurgency in Cabinda is experiencing a minor resurgence and poses a moderate risk of death and injury to military personnel, particularly in the northeast of the exclave, but with little effect on oil operations. Angola's expenditure on military equipment purchases will continue falling in response to dwindling oil revenue, affecting the army's ability to deploy.
Vaccines Required to Enter the Country
Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for all travelers over one year of age upon entry to the country. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease; it should be taken ten days in advance to be fully effective.
Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Malaria: There is currently no malaria vaccine. However, various antimalarial prophylactics are available by prescription and can reduce risk of infection by up to 90 percent. Different medications are prescribed depending on the risk level and the strains of the virus present in the destination. Antimalarial tablets need to be taken throughout the trip to be effective and may need to be taken for as long as four weeks following the trip.
Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).
Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers
Cholera: A newly licensed cholera vaccine (Vaxchora) has just been made available and may be prescribed for adults traveling to areas with active cholera transmission. The vaccine prevents severe diarrhea caused by the most common type of cholera bacteria. As the vaccine is not fully effective, hygienic precautions should also be taken (e.g. drinking only bottled water, eating only thoroughly cooked foods, washing hands regularly, etc.).
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
Angola is located in a tropical zone and is divided into large three sub-zones. The northwestern region (from the Cabinda enclave to Ambriz to Luanda to Malanje) has a humid tropical climate, as does the east of the country. The central and southern plateau regions have a more temperate and drier climate; the average temperature in the city of Huambo (previously Nova Lisboa), located at an elevation of 1,701 m, is 19°C and can fall to zero in the winter. Finally, the south of the country is arid or semi-arid, between the plateau and the Namibian border, beginning from Namibe province.
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