Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Report
Re-emerging ethnic tensions and a constitutional crisis following the October election is threatening to upend the Dayton Accords that underpin Bosnia's statehood. Strikes and protests, with potential for violence, are likely in urban centres by groups affected by pay, pension and welfare cuts. Despite long-term limitations, the short-term economic outlook is positive. IHS Markit's economics service estimates that annual GDP growth will reach 3.4% in 2018. This is primarily due to improvements in exports and improved regional and EU demand.
Serious barriers to investment remain in Bosnia despite recent reforms. Although authorities have achieved significant success in reducing the amount of legislative overlap between the two autonomous entities that comprise Bosnia, there are still significant differences between the two. Bosnia depends on EU and IMF funds to reform its administration services. The country's inability to implement important reforms and agree on the allocation of the EU's IPA (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance) funds risks the deprivation of such vital aid.
The Bosnian war in 1992–95 brought an influx of foreign fighters and clerics adhering to Wahhabism. Their settlement in Bosnia gradually contributed to the proselytisation of this ideology among the local youth. On three separate occasions in 2010, 2011, and 2015, lone actors conducted attacks against security personnel and the US embassy. However, the overall capability of existing cells is very limited and unlikely to result in major attacks on Bosnian soil.
Resurgent nationalism and a constitutional crisis owing to an unreformed election law have increased the risk of military conflict in Bosnia. This situation is exacerbated by the militarisation of Bosnia's regional police authorities, which are divided along ethnic lines. The risk of war, however, is mitigated by the commercial interests of the political and business elites of each of the three constituent ethnic groups, as these are deeply intertwined.
War veterans have in recent months frequently protested to demand state support for unemployed former soldiers. Sarajevo and Tuzla have been particularly affected by such protests, typically involving roadblocks at key highways. The risk of similar economically driven protests by other groups, including farmers opposing the liberalisation of the agricultural sector, remains elevated.
Vaccines Required to Enter the Country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
The climate is semi-continental in the north and Mediterranean in the south. Summer are very hot. Winters are long and harsh in the north of the country but milder in the south.
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz