Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Report
Serious barriers to investment remain in Bosnia despite previous reforms. Although authorities have achieved significant success in reducing the amount of legislative overlap between the two autonomous entities that comprise Bosnia, there are still significant differences between the two. Bosnia depends on EU and IMF funds to reform its administration services. The country's inability to implement important reforms and agree on the allocation of the EU's Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) funds risks the deprivation of such crucial aid.
The Bosnian war in 1992–95 brought an influx of foreign fighters and clerics adhering to Wahhabism. Their settlement in Bosnia gradually contributed to the proselytisation of this ideology among the local youth. On three separate occasions in 2010, 2011, and 2015, lone actors adhering to this ideology conducted attacks against security personnel and the US embassy. However, the overall capability of existing cells is very limited and unlikely to result in major attacks in Bosnia.
Organised crime groups operating in Bosnia typically engage in smuggling and trafficking of narcotics and cigarettes, and racketeering. Rival gangs often resolve disputes with violence, a phenomenon facilitated by the illegal proliferation of weapons, a legacy from the war in 1992–95. Violent gang disputes are a predominantly urban occurrence. Organised crime gangs rarely target foreign nationals; the bulk of crimes affecting expatriates is non-violent and typically involves petty theft and burglary.
Resurgent nationalism poses the biggest risk of military conflict in Bosnia. This situation is exacerbated by the militarisation of Bosnia's regional police authorities. The risk of conflict, however, is mitigated by the commercial interests of the political and business elites of each of the three constituent ethnic groups, which remain deeply intertwined. Moreover, Bosnia's submission of its Annual National Programme (ANP) to NATO, a prerequisite of membership, will help to centralise control over all military facilities, reducing the risk of civil war.
Vaccines Required to Enter the Country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
The climate is semi-continental in the north and Mediterranean in the south. Summer are very hot. Winters are long and harsh in the north of the country but milder in the south.
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz