Brunei Darussalam Country Report
Brunei is a constitutional sultanate with Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah as the head of the state, prime minister, defence minister, foreign minister, and finance minister. The sultan does not face any challenge to his authority. There is also no sign of a gradual transfer of power to Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah, who is currently minister in the Prime Minister's Office. Brunei has since 1962 been in a state of emergency, renewed every two years, allowing the sultan to circumvent parliament and run the government by decree. The country heavily relies on oil and gas, which contribute about 90% of export revenue. Low oil prices have reduced the government's ability to fund its spending and increased the likelihood of the sultanate introducing a consumption tax in the near future.
The government maintains a positive attitude towards foreign investment and has a low corporate tax regime. The public sector dominates the business environment, and the government has a plan to privatise government agencies but has not made significant progress. Brunei's transport infrastructure, including roads, ports, and bridges, is undergoing modernisation. The small size of the population and the large size of the public sector have made Brunei dependent on foreign workers in the private sector, making the labour market highly flexible. Corruption levels are also very low, and the few reported cases involve low-level bribes.
Brunei claims a tiny part of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. However, it has continued to maintain amicable links with other claimants in the territorial dispute, such as China and Malaysia, and is unlikely to become involved in escalation between the larger claimants. Brunei's land border dispute with Malaysia over the district of Limbang was resolved in 2009 when Brunei dropped its claim to the district. After 2009, progress has been made regarding demarcating the borders and controlling cross-border traffic, indicating amicable relations between the two countries.
Brunei's social stability is underpinned by high living standards funded by hydrocarbon revenue and tight state control. Social unrest has been extremely rare since 2009 when Bangladeshi workers protested over unpaid wages. There is a very low risk of unrest, and there is no indication of an increased risk of civil unrest.
Vaccines Required to Enter the Country
Yellow fever: There is no risk of contracting yellow fever in Brunei. However, the government requires proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from countries with a risk of yellow fever transmission. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease.
Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers
Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).
Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Japanese encephalitis: Japanese encephalitis is typically only present in rural areas. Discuss travel plans with your doctor to decide if you need the JE vaccine, which is administered in two doses spaced over a month. The last dose should be administered at least ten days prior to departure for an at-risk area to be fully effective.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
Brunei's climate is hot and humid throughout the year. Temperatures are generally pleasant (23°C to 32°C). The rainy season begins in September and lasts until January. The dry season (or the drier season), extends from February until April.
Voltage: 240 V ~ 50 Hz