Bulgaria Country Report
Following the early March 2017 election, the centre-right GERB is leading the government for a third time, currently in a coalition with nationalist parties. Policy inconsistency and reversal are probable. Local contractors are likely to be favoured in the awarding of procurement contracts. Corruption risks are high. In the two-year outlook, IHS Markit does not anticipate sound reform of law enforcement, and prosecution. More corruption convocations will probably be sought, but are unlikely to substantially improve the environment. Bulgaria will probably remain prone to Russian influence. After growing by an estimated 3.7% in 2017, real GDP is forecast to expand by 3.8% in 2018 and decrease to 3.3% in 2019. Private consumption and investment will drive growth.
Road and rail infrastructure quality remains below the EU average, with much modernisation needed in some regions, especially for rail. Governments are likely to continue prioritising infrastructure projects, but regulatory constraints and corruption lead to slow progress. Priority projects include rail lines refurbishment, a rail connection from Sofia to Skopje, FYR Macedonia, a tunnel under the Balkan Mountains, and the Hemus motorway. Attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) and EU funds for such projects is a priority. The labour force is relatively cheap, and there is a low risk of long and disruptive strikes.
Close co-operation with the US, troop contributions in Afghanistan (about 160 troops under the Resolute Support mission), and the sale of weapons to the Middle East, as well as an influx of refugees from Syria, Afghanistan, and elsewhere, have increased the likelihood of domestic Muslim radicalisation, but home-grown terrorist risk remains low. In 2016, the parliament passed legislative measures in line with the government's counter-terrorism strategy, aimed at strengthening prevention and enforcement tools. However, the capacity of law-enforcement bodies and specialised courts on organised crime and terrorism remains questionable amid endemic corruption, including among security officials, and lack of a successful track record in combating organised crime.
Bulgaria's relations with its neighbours are expected to remain peaceful. Although military conflict with Russia is highly unlikely, relations with Moscow have been somewhat strained because of Russia's opposition to Bulgaria's defence co-operation with the US. In 2015, NATO opened a regional co-ordinating unit in Bulgaria. Bulgaria will participate in NATO military exercises in the Black Sea as part of the Alliance strategy to establish a deterrence capability against Russia along its eastern flank. This elevates the risk of maritime incidents between military and potentially commercial vessels, which could lead to transport disruption. Exploratory cyber attacks against governmental websites or CNI assets are likely.
Environmental demonstrations against Bansko national park expansion and other issues are likely in capital Sofia and other big cities, causing traffic disruption of up to a day. Large anti-government protests are probable in Sofia, remaining peaceful and causing transport disruption for several hours. Union-supported protests by employees in the public sector, usually leading to road closures in Sofia, are also likely. They often occur in the run-up to legislative amendments on social or taxation issues. Protests by far-right groups pose moderate risk of attacks causing injury to refugees and people perceived as representing minorities.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Bulgaria is situated in an active seismic zone. In May 2014, a strong earthquake (6.9 on the Richter scale) struck under the Aegean Sea, shaking the country, and hospitalizing 300 in neighboring Turkey. In 2015, a 4.2 magnitude earthquake took place outside Sliven and a 3.8 magnitude earthquake off the Black Sea coast.
The country is known to experience severe weather from time to time. Snowstorms may severely disrupt travel and cause power outages during winter.
Flooding occurs in the spring and winter. Insufficient infrastructures in small towns and villages makes them more prone to flooding. In February 2015, two people were killed while rail and road traffic was several disrupted when floods hit the country. Melting snow and heavy rain increase the water level of reservoirs and rivers and leads to overflowing. In June 2014, flash floods and mud slides due to overflowing led to 11 deaths in Varna. For regular updates regarding weather alert you may visit the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology.
Wildfires are frequent in mountain areas during summer and tend to be concentrated in Sofia, Haskovo, Sliven, Yambol, and Tazgrad. Summers can be particularly hot and heatwaves can cause transportation and health issues. In late July 2014, temperatures reached 37°C (100°F).
Roads are in mediocre condition throughout the country. Aside from main highways that have been renovated in recent years, most of the Bulgarian road network is underdeveloped. Secondary roads are very poorly maintained. The ongoing construction and innovation process causes heavy traffic and often lead to road accidents. Traffic lights often blink yellow late at night, giving confusing right-of-way signals, that contribute to accidents.
Bulgaria ranks high among countries in road fatalities. Around 10 people per 100,000 individuals were killed on the road in 2015 in Bulgaria.
Fake security checkpoints are regularly reported. Be vigilant and pay attention; security forces' vehicles are Opel Astras and are marked with insignias. It is illegal for police officers to demand a fine be paid on the spot in Bulgaria; it is considered extortion. If arrested at a checkpoint, ask for a receipt and note the name of the police officer down.
Inner-city buses are frequent and relatively timely. Sofia's Metro is modern and relatively safe.
Individuals should only use official taxi companies, including OK Supertrains in Sofia, Trans Taxi in Varna, and Eko Taxi in Burgas. Upon arrival at the airport, if airport transportation has not already been organized, it is recommended to order a taxi at the desk of official taxi companies inside the airport instead of hailing one outside.
Airline transportation is reliable; the national carrier, Bulgaria Air, complies with the safety standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Strict security controls have been introduced since the July 2012 terrorist attack in Burgas airport. Be at the airport at least two hours before takeoff.
Bulgaria's climate is continental and varies by elevation. Winters are harsh and snowy, with snowstorms frequent in the mountains until May. Summers are hot and dry with occasional evening thunderstorms. Rain is most common in the spring and autumn months.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz