Country Reports

Central African Republic Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The withdrawal of key militia groups from the February 2019 peace deal with the government signals the effective breakdown of the agreement. Armed groups control 80% of the country and violence is increasing as insurgents seek to retain control ahead of presidential elections, posing death, injury, and kidnapping risks to NGO, UN, and mining personnel. Former president François Bozizéhas confirmed his candidacy and militias will likely position themselves behind him or incumbent Faustin Touadéra, who is expected to stand again, increasing civil unrest risks. Gold- and diamond-mining operations and UN peacekeepers are particularly at risk from the expansion of the 3R militia group in western CAR.CAR’s constitutional court in June 2020 ruled that presidential and parliamentary elections will go ahead as planned in December 2020, despite a proposal by some lawmakers to delay polls and extend the current terms due to the COVID-19 disease. CAR’s almost non-existent healthcare system would be unable to combat a major COVID-19 outbreak, but the presence of international NGOs and the MINUSCA peacekeeping mission is likely to alleviate some of the impact. Recovering income from the extractive sectors will only partly finance the country’s investment in the three- to five-year outlook due to its limited fiscal capacity and an extremely narrow tax base. The government is forecast to continue depending on help from the donor community, especially the IMF, which in December 2019 approved a three-year arrangement under its Extended Credit Facility (ECF) equivalent to USD115.1 million. Russia and China are likely to become important future sources of financial and political support. Worsening terms of trade threaten CAR's growth outlook given its narrow export base, predominantly timber and diamonds. The country’s main long-term challenge will be to keep fiscal expenditure in check while prioritising capital development and improving the business climate. CAR is likely to remain one of the least-developed countries in the world.
Last update: September 4, 2020

Operational Outlook

Despite President Touadéra's pledges to fight corruption and attract investment, bureaucratic inertia remains a serious problem across the public sector and business environment, with frequent strikes mostly in demand of salary arrears. Insecurity is likely to persist as the main impediment to investment, particularly since militia groups announced in April 2020 they were suspending their participation in government, signalling a breakdown of the February 2019 peace agreement. Corruption and weak infrastructure increase the cost of starting a business.

Last update: June 17, 2020


Very high

Armed groups continue to control 80% of the country, and intra-militia violence has surged since militants suspended participation in government in April 2020, particularly around Birao, Ndele, and Bria. MINUSCA will likely be forced to intervene militarily as fighting increases ahead of December's presidential and parliamentary elections. Anti-Balaka and ex-Séléka militias are fractured and fighting is both sectarian and ethnic. Ex-Séléka armed groups have reportedly been purchasing weapons and equipment from Sudanese paramilitary forces, increasing their military capability.

Last update: June 17, 2020


Crime levels, including violent robbery, are high in CAR. Furthermore, porous and largely unpoliced borders with neighbouring countries (particularly Cameroon, Chad, and Sudan, which are also plagued by insecurity) mean armed groups and criminal gangs are able to operate easily across international frontiers. Car-jackings are frequent along main roads in the CAR, which threaten the transportation of goods and people working in the military, UN and humanitarian sector. Violent crime is likely in the capital, Bangui, particularly in the Cité Corniche neighbourhood. The main supply road between Bangui and Garoua-Boulaϊ is frequently targeted by armed militia groups.

Last update: August 8, 2020

War Risks

Civil war risks have increased since CAR's main militia groups withdrew from government in April 2020, accusing the authorities of reneging on commitments made under the February 2019 peace agreement. This follows the resignation last year of two militia leaders as government military advisers, as well as the return of ex-presidents François Bozizé and Michael Djotodia, in December 2019 and January 2020 respectively, increasing the likelihood of their followers regrouping militarily ahead of December's elections. Russia is training CAR's armed forces, but they are unlikely to be effective in the one-year outlook, reducing the probability of interstate war.

Last update: June 17, 2020

Social Stability

Very high

Anger over MINUSCA components' perceived bias towards certain militia groups is likely to drive public protests against the UN in the capital, Bangui, as well as cities such as Kaga-Bandoro and Bambari. Increased commodity prices, which in some cases have tripled due to the COVID-19 virus outbreak, are also likely to trigger protests around market areas in the capital and major cities. Anti-government protests and strikes over unpaid salaries are highly likely in urban areas.

Last update: June 17, 2020

Health Risk


Vaccines Required to Enter the Country

Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for all travelers upon entry to the country. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease; it should be taken ten days in advance to be fully effective.

Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Malaria: There is currently no malaria vaccine. However, various antimalarial prophylactics are available by prescription and can reduce risk of infection by up to 90 percent. Different medications are prescribed depending on the risk level and the strains of the virus present in the destination. Antimalarial tablets need to be taken throughout the trip to be effective and may need to be taken for as long as four weeks following the trip.

Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).

Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Meningococcal meningitis: There are several types of meningococcal vaccines. None offer full immunity and some require periodic booster shots. Consult your doctor to determine which is best for you depending on medical history and travel plans.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

The rainy season (which lasts 6 months) causes widespread floods, material damage, and deaths.

Last update: April 5, 2019


Very high

Much of the country's road infrastructure is obsolete, insufficient, partially degraded, or even nonexistent.

The three main paved roads starting in Bangui are in poor condition. One leads to Mbaïki (100 km [60 mi]), another to Sibut (200 km [120 mi]), and a large part of the route toward Bouar and Cameroon. During the rainy season (May to October), the roads often become impassable.

The danger of road travel has increased due to the lack of adherence to road regulations, the poor condition of many of the vehicles, and the lack of health facilities. The absence of street lighting and traffic lights makes traveling at night inadvisable. Road accidents resulting in fatalities may provoke riots.

Outside of major cities, travel by road should be only take place during the day in a sports utility vehicle (4x4), with a driver, preferably in convoy. Individuals should also travel with extra water, food, and fuel. It is advisable to ensure that your vehicle is equipped with replacement parts (spare tires, cables, etc.) as well as telecommunications devises. Individuals should carry identification papers at all times (passport and visa). During travel in the capital, it is advisable to communicate the details of one's travel arrangements to a trusted confidant.     

Intercity travel via road can prove dangerous. Official and unofficial roadblocks are frequent. Furthermore it is recommended to remain vigilant when traveling in isolated regions; cases of armed theft, carjacking, and the presence of bandits have been reported across the country.    

The airlines MINAIR, Via Air, and Lapara offer flights to the cities in the center of the country, as long as the region is secure. There are daily flights operated by several international airlines from Douala (Cameroon). Air France operates a weekly, direct flight.

Last update: April 5, 2019


Due to the degradation of the energy network in the previous conflict, there are frequent power and water cuts in the country.

Mobile telephone signals cover the Bangui area as well as a significant part of the interior of the country.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


The climate in the north of the country is Sahelian (tropical and semi-arid). The climate in the south is tropical, hot, and humid. The rainy season begins in May and ends in October.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +236
Bangui Central Police Station: 21 61 13 00

There are no emergency services in the CAR.


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019