Costa Rica Country Report
Costa Rica is headed into a presidential run-off on 1 April 2018 after National Restoration Party (Partido Restauración Nacional: PRN) candidate Fabricio Alvarado and the governing Citizens' Action Party (Partido Acción Ciudadana: PAC)'s Carlos Alvarado (no relation) received 24.79% and 21.76% of the vote respectively in the 4 February presidential election. Congressional elections held on the same day resulted in a highly divided congress, with no party obtaining more than 17.9% of the vote. Divisions in Congress will obstruct the passing of legislation for the new government, particularly in key issues such as fiscal reform. GDP growth is expected at 4.0% in 2018. Occasional strikes at Limón and Moín ports may cause some disruption but will not obstructplans to expand port facilities.
There are no major operational risks to foreign investors in Costa Rica. Potential protest risks are greatest for resource developments. However, such demonstrations would not fundamentally undermine Costa Rica's propitious investment climate. Skilled labour is readily available and the level of unionisation in the private sector is relatively low. Environmental awareness is high and development projects are closely monitored by international and national organisations. Improving infrastructure, particularly highways, is currently a focus for the government amid repeated reports of degradation, but a number of major projects have faced delays.
There are no known terrorist groups in Costa Rica with the intention or capability to target private, military, or government-owned assets. There is a modest, but growing, presence of international drug-trafficking organisations in the country. These groups do not have an interest in conducting terrorist attacks, although their presence is contributing to the increase in violent crime rates. Officials have reported the presence of former members of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, but they are unlikely to present a direct crime or terror risk.
Costa Rica abolished its military in 1948, but remains protected by an active national security force and through international co-operation with the United States. The risk of interstate war remains low despite an ongoing border dispute with Nicaragua along the San Juan River. Occasional incursions into contested areas are likely as both countries pursue infrastructure projects along the San Juan River and Nicaragua seeks to expand offshore oil exploration. Major disputes between Nicaragua and Costa Rica will probably manifest themselves through diplomatic channels.
Public unions stage periodic protests over planned public spending cuts, privatisation, and environmental concerns. However, such demonstrations are generally peaceful and are not large enough to threaten the stability of the government; protests also sporadically close Limón port and block motorway access to the capital. Protest locations are likely to include motorways and border crossings, such as route 27 between San José and Santa Ana and the Panama crossing at Paso Canoas, government buildings in San José, and the private residences of political leaders. Occasional trucker protests can delay traffic on main roads and at border crossings.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for travelers over nine months of age arriving from a country with risk of yellow fever (YFV) transmission (with the exception of Argentina, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago ) and for travelers who have been in transit for >12 hours in an airport located in a country with risk of YFV transmission.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - chloroquine (sometimes marketed as Nivaquine).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Costa Rica is vulnerable to natural disasters, including seismic activity. The risk is highest on the Nicoya Peninsula (north) and the Osa Peninsula (south).
Eruptions of the Turrialba Volcano, located approximately 35 km (25 mi) east-northeast of San José, are relatively common and can lead to flight disruptions at San José's Juan Santamaria (SJO) and Tobías Bolaños (SYQ) international airports, including full airport closures. The volcano also regularly drops potentially hazardous ash over the Central Valley, home to 60 percent of Costa Rica's 4.3 million residents as well as on San José (see HEALTH section). Various other active volcanoes are present in Costa Rica, including Irazú, Rincon, and Poás.
In the event of nearby volcanic activity, keep abreast of the situation and take the necessary precautions if in affected areas, such as stocking up on drinking water, wearing respiratory masks, and wearing covering clothing to protect skin from abrasive ash. Be prepared to evacuate if such an order is given.
Thunderstorms and downpours are common during the rainy season, which lasts from May through November with a peak of precipitation in September and October. Flooding and landslides, and consequent travel disruptions, are possible during this period.
Roads are often in mediocre condition; motorists should drive with caution, particularly on secondary roads and in rural areas. Poor road conditions and reckless local driving habits contribute to high fatality rates on the road. Additionally, roads are often closed due to flooding and landslides during the rainy season (May to November). Avoid driving at night when possible, particularly outside of cities.
Traffic congestion is notorious in the capital region (Gran Área Metropolitana), e.g. the cities of San José, Heredia, Alajuela, and Cartago, particularly on San José's Circunvalacion ring road. Traffic conditions are particularly poor in the event of protests or car accidents (common in the city) and on rainy days, especially in the event of flooding.
While the ride-sharing application is technically illegal in Costa Rica, the service continues to function. Regarding taxis, it is advisable to only use licensed taxis with working meters. City buses are generally safe, inexpensive, and well maintained; be vigilant, however, regarding pickpockets.
Criminals have been known to specifically target rental cars, sometimes puncturing tires and following the car until it is forced to pull over then robbing the occupants.
Air travel is safe in Costa Rica. However, flight disruptions are relatively common in the afternoon due to the frequency of rain and thunderstorms.
Conditions are wet and tropical along the Caribbean coast but drier inland and along the Pacific. The dry season lasts from January until May and the rainy season from April until December. Rainfall is the heaviest along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts (intense but brief showers). Costa Rica's Central Valley has a temperate climate throughout the year. Temperatures are very high along the Pacific coast in the summer and slightly cooler along the Caribbean coast (30°C).
Voltage: 120 V ~ 60 Hz