Country Reports

Denmark Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The early lockdown implemented by the Danish government in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus outbreak will cause a steep recession, as activity across many service industries had come to a halt in late March and April. We expect the economy to contract by over 7% in 2020, reaching the bottom in the second quarter.The lockdown started to be eased in mid-April, with the most affected sectors allowed to operate, subject to new rules, from mid-May and further easing in June. However, as a small and open economy with half of exports of goods and services going to the EU, Denmark relies on successful containment measures and a gradual return to normalcy in Europe and globally. The Danish government announced a series of support measures, aimed at protecting jobs and incomes. Together with the collapse in economic activity, we expect Denmark’s fiscal deficit in 2020 to be almost 9% of GDP. However, its public finances are in a good position to absorb this shock, with the public debt in 2019 among the lowest in the EU (34% of GDP).Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen and her Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterne) – in power since June 2019 – is backed by five other leftist parties, ensuring a parliamentary majority. The government has pledged to reverse the austerity cuts of the previous government, pledging increased spending on health and elderly care. These measures are now likely to be put on hold as the government’s policy priority shifts to responding to the economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 virus pandemic.
Last update: June 18, 2020

Operational Outlook

Denmark has a transparent regulatory system, excellent infrastructure, and efficient bureaucracy. The labour market is highly skilled and mobile. The government strongly supports the open economy and encourages foreign investment. Bribe requests or other corrupt practices are extremely rare and unlikely to affect commercial operations. Denmark is consistently ranked among the least corrupt countries in the world by anti-corruption civil society groups. The primary operational risks to investment stem from well-organised environmental activists and trade unions. Denmark imposed strict regulatory rules in its response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus outbreak; however, it was also among the first EU countries that has relaxed those restrictions.

Last update: June 17, 2020



Jihadist intent to target Danish assets is present owing to the Prophet Muhammad cartoons and Denmark's military involvement against the Islamic State. Given capability constraints and surveillance, firearm attacks by radicalised individuals or small groups against soft targets are more probable than co-ordinated IED attacks, similar to the February 2015 Copenhagen shootings at a cafe and a synagogue. Individuals and buildings associated with cartoon publications or satire of Islam, transportation hubs, Jewish assets, crowded public spaces in major cities such as Copenhagen and Aarhus, and government buildings and officials, are likely targets.

Last update: June 17, 2020


The April 2019 gun battle between two criminal gangs in the Copenhagen suburb of Rungsted highlighted the potential for gang violence in Denmark; the conflict between criminal gangs persists. However, notwithstanding this incident, criminal violence has been on a downward trend since the previous peak in shootings in Copenhagen and Zealand in 2013. In 2019, nine homicides were recorded in Copenhagen. The EU Schengen border regime has facilitated the movement of people throughout the EU but also made it easier for transnational criminals to smuggle illicit goods into Denmark. To combat this, Denmark and Sweden, and to a lesser extent Germany, will likely continue active monitoring at the border through 2020.

Last update: June 17, 2020

War Risks

Denmark's geographic position at the mouth of the Baltic Sea and its NATO membership put it at risk in the unlikely event of direct conflict between Russia and NATO. In such a scenario, Denmark would become a likely target for Russian airspace and marine incursions, posing risks of disruption to commercial air and sea traffic. Similar to Canada and Russia, Denmark has asserted its own sovereignty over the Arctic. However, disputes with these countries are unlikely to escalate into armed conflict. The Danish territory of Greenland would likely be strategically important in a potential NATO-Russia conflict in the Arctic, however.

Last update: June 17, 2020

Social Stability


The influx of refugees in the past few years and the debate over contentious immigration laws considered or introduced by the previous government have raised the risk of pro- and anti-immigrant protests in Denmark. These are, however, set to decrease amid the ruling pact between the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) and five parliamentary allies, which foresees the reversal of some of these measures. Restrictions on public gatherings amid the government’s response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus outbreak further mitigates the risk. When held, protests tend to be peaceful, but there is a moderate risk of violence, involving scuffles between protesters and security personnel.

Last update: June 17, 2020

Health Risk


Vaccines required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Vaccines recommended for all travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines recommended for some travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Denmark has an oceanic climate. Winters are never very cold (temperatures rarely drop below -5°C) thanks to the tempering influence of the ocean, but they are quite long. In the summer temperatures range between 18°C and 25°C during the day and nights are cool. Cool winds often pass through the country, lowering temperatures. Between the end of May and mid-September, days are long and nights are clear and cool. Beginning in October cold temperatures, winds, and clouds return and remain fixtures throughout the winter.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +45
Police: 112
Fire Dept.: 112
Ambulance: 112


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019