Country Reports

Estonia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Estonia's latest parliamentary election, held on 3 March, is likely to produce a coalition government led by the centre-right Reform party, previously in opposition, which came first with 34 seats in the 101-seat parliament. Irrespective of the coalition arrangements, Estonia is likely to see policy continuity regarding initiatives aimed at boosting employment, increasing state infrastructure investments and defence spending. Most establishment parties agree on main issues such as positioning Estonia as a business-friendly country that is firmly within the NATO and EU structures. Projects such as the Baltic gas connector with Finland, the EU-funded integration into the EU electricity system and Rail Baltica's construction should remain a priority. Estonia's relations with Russia are likely to remain damaged by Estonia’s ongoing pursuit of economic, infrastructure, and energy diversification away from Russia and NATO integration. Although the risk of full-blown war between Russia and Estonia is minimal, owing to the former's costly and extensive military engagements elsewhere and the latter's NATO membership, Russian military aircraft activity over the Baltic Sea and increased Russian naval presence in the territorial waters of all three Baltic states is likely to continue. Estonia is a highly digitalised country, which increases its vulnerabilities to cyber-attacks. These are likely to target critical national infrastructure, governmental websites, financial institutions, and media outlets. Better performance in higher value-added sectors of the economy, rising investment and growing purchasing power are expected to maintain economic growth despite rising unit labour costs and weakening global demand. After rising by 3.9% in 2018, we forecast economic growth to decelerate to around 3% in 2019, and to decelerate further in 2020. Downside risks stem mainly from decreasing foreign demand and lack of qualified labour force. The higher value-added sector is likely to be impacted by the scarcity of skilled staff and slower global demand, counterbalanced by efforts to enter higher value-added business segments.
Last update: March 26, 2019

Operational Outlook

Estonia is a very business-friendly country. The favourable-to-businesses tax system, relatively low level of social unrest, and stable political scene offer a good business environment. Estonia is focused on ICT, and the state authorities are investing in increasing internet literacy and in improving online information services. The quality of roads is around the EU average, but railways require modernisation and expansion. The port infrastructure is well developed. The labour force is well educated but becoming increasingly expensive. Strikes are usually peaceful and not highly disruptive; sympathy strikes are unlikely.

Last update: February 22, 2019



Animal activists and far-right groups are the most likely perpetrators of violence, with moderate risks of vandalism against animal research laboratories or fur shops and injury risks to minorities and refugees. The risk of jihadist terrorist attacks is low. In 2016, a court sentenced two Russian citizens, permanent Estonian residents, for supporting Islamic terrorism. This was rather an isolated incident, however, and does not indicate an increased terrorist threat within the country. Cyber-attacks, perpetrated by Russian individuals or groups acting with the tacit approval (but not necessarily direction) of the Kremlin, are likely.

Last update: January 15, 2019

War Risks

Relations with Russia are made tense by the increased presence of NATO forces in Estonia and disputes over the rights of the Russian minority in the country. The border treaty remains unratified by the Russian and Estonian parliaments. Estonia has been erecting a fence and deploying surveillance equipment along the border with Russia, which will most likely generally improve the security situation in Estonia. Interstate war is highly unlikely because of Estonia's NATO membership and Russia's involvement in Syria. Cyber espionage and cyber attacks against Estonia are likely.

Last update: January 15, 2019

Social Stability


The risk of non-violent protests by ethnic Russians instigated by Kremlin-backed provocateurs has decreased in last couple of years. Even if they occur, such demonstrations will receive limited backing from the wider population and are unlikely to replicate the hybrid warfare seen in Eastern Ukraine. Non-violent economic protests are probable before and after the introduction of planned excise duties increase. However, these are likely to remain contained to a few hundred of people in large cities, such as Tallinn, Tartu, and Narva. Peaceful environmental demonstrations are likely.

Last update: January 15, 2019

Health Risk


Vaccines required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Vaccines recommended for all travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines recommended for most travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Vaccines recommended for some travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


The climate is continental in the interior of the country and temperate along the coasts thanks to the presence of the Baltic Sea. Summers are relatively hot and winters are cold, sometimes harsh, with temperatures falling as low as -30°C. Muddy conditions are common in the spring due to the melting of winter snows.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +372
Police: 112
Ambulance: 112
Fire Dept.: 112


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019