Estonia Country Report
Estonia is likely to see policy continuity in the foreseeable future, with most establishment parties agreeing on the main political and economic issues. Nevertheless, policy-making is likely to be slowed down and occasionally obstructed by heightened disagreements among coalition partners ahead of the March 2019 election scheduled. Still, the government is likely to continue Estonia's focus on attracting foreign investment, maintaining a tax policy within a framework favourable for investors and entrepreneurs and supporting institutional transparency. The opposition is likely to seriously threaten government stability if it aligns more closely with some of the ruling coalition partners. Estonia's relations with Russia will remain tense as Tallinn continues to pursue economic,infrastructure, and energy diversification away from Moscow and intensifies co-operation with NATO on defence issues.
Estonia is a very business-friendly country. The favourable-to-businesses tax system, relatively low level of social unrest, and stable political scene offer a good business environment. Estonia is focused on ICT, and the state authorities are investing in increasing internet literacy and in improving online information services. The quality of roads is around the EU average, but railways require modernisation and expansion. The port infrastructure is well developed. The labour force is well educated and but becoming increasingly expensive. The government is working hard to retain skilled labour.
Animal activists and far-right groups are the most likely perpetrators of violence, with moderate risks of vandalism against animal research laboratories or fur shops and injury risks to minorities and refugees. The risk of jihadist terrorist attacks is low. In 2016, a court sentenced two Russian citizens, permanent Estonian residents, for supporting Islamic terrorism. This was rather an isolated incident, however, and does not indicate an increased terrorist threat within the country. Cyber-attacks, perpetrated by Russian individuals or groups acting with the tacit approval (but not necessarily direction) of the Kremlin, are likely in the one-year outlook.
Relations with Russia are made tense by the increased presence of NATO forces in Estonia and disputes over the rights of the Russian minority in the country. The border treaty remains unratified by the Russian and Estonian parliaments. Estonia has been erecting a fence and deploying surveillance equipment along the border with Russia, which will most likely generally improve the security situation in Estonia. Interstate war is highly unlikely because of Estonia's NATO membership and the alliance's current commitment to the Baltic states' security and Russia's involvement in Syria. Cyber espionage and cyber attacks against Estonia are likely.
The risk of non-violent protests by ethnic Russians instigated by Kremlin-backed provocateurs has decreased in last couple of years. Even if they occur, such demonstrations will receive limited backing from the wider population and are unlikely to replicate the hybrid warfare seen in Eastern Ukraine. Non-violent economic protests are probable before and after the introduction of planned excise duties increase. However, these are likely to remain contained to a few hundred of people in large cities, such as Tallinn, Tartu, and Narva.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
The climate is continental in the interior of the country and temperate along the coasts thanks to the presence of the Baltic Sea. Summers are relatively hot and winters are cold, sometimes harsh, with temperatures falling as low as -30°C. Muddy conditions are common in the spring due to the melting of winter snows.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz