Estonia Country Report
Estonia is likely to see policy continuity in the foreseeable future, with most establishment parties agreeing on the main political and economic issues. Nevertheless, policy-making is likely to be slowed down and occasionally obstructed by heightened disagreements among coalition partners ahead of the March 2019 election. Still, the government is likely to continue Estonia's focus on attracting foreign investment, maintaining a tax policy within a framework favourable for investors and entrepreneurs and supporting institutional transparency. The opposition is likely to seriously threaten government stability in the case of closer alignment with some of the ruling coalition partners. Estonia's relations with Russia will remain tense as Tallinn continues to pursue economic,infrastructure, and energy diversification away from Moscow and intensifies co-operation with NATO on defence issues.
Estonia is a very business-friendly country. The favourable-to-businesses tax system, relatively low level of social unrest, and stable political scene offer a good business environment. Estonia is focused on ICT, and the state authorities are investing in increasing internet literacy and in improving online information services. The quality of roads is around the EU average, but railways require modernisation and expansion. The port infrastructure is well developed. The labour force is well educated but becoming increasingly expensive. The risk of strikes is moderate. The government is working hard to retain skilled labour.
Animal activists and far-right groups are the most likely perpetrators of violence, with moderate risks of vandalism against animal research laboratories or fur shops and injury risks to minorities and refugees. The risk of jihadist terrorist attacks is low. In 2016, a court sentenced two Russian citizens, permanent Estonian residents, for supporting Islamic terrorism. This was rather an isolated incident, however, and does not indicate an increased terrorist threat within the country. Cyber-attacks, perpetrated by Russian individuals or groups acting with the tacit approval (but not necessarily direction) of the Kremlin, are likely.
Relations with Russia are made tense by the increased presence of NATO forces in Estonia and disputes over the rights of the Russian minority in the country. The border treaty remains unratified by the Russian and Estonian parliaments. Estonia has been erecting a fence and deploying surveillance equipment along the border with Russia, which will most likely generally improve the security situation in Estonia. Interstate war is highly unlikely because of Estonia's NATO membership and Russia's involvement in Syria. Cyber espionage and cyber attacks against Estonia are likely.
The risk of non-violent protests by ethnic Russians instigated by Kremlin-backed provocateurs has decreased in last couple of years. Even if they occur, such demonstrations will receive limited backing from the wider population and are unlikely to replicate the hybrid warfare seen in Eastern Ukraine. Non-violent economic protests are probable before and after the introduction of planned excise duties increase. However, these are likely to remain contained to a few hundred of people in large cities, such as Tallinn, Tartu, and Narva. Peaceful environmental demonstrations are likely.
Vaccines required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Vaccines recommended for all travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines recommended for most travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Vaccines recommended for some travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
The climate is continental in the interior of the country and temperate along the coasts thanks to the presence of the Baltic Sea. Summers are relatively hot and winters are cold, sometimes harsh, with temperatures falling as low as -30°C. Muddy conditions are common in the spring due to the melting of winter snows.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz