Ethiopia Country Report
The most likely targets for government investigations into slow project implementation and misappropriation of funding are state-owned Metals and Engineering Corporation (METEC) and state-directed and -owned conglomerates that have benefited from priority access to foreign exchange and more lenient credit provision from state-owned banks. The perceived success of protest movements in 2018 is likely driving increasingly assertive behaviour by unofficial labour groups and "youth activist" gangs, particularly in Oromia, Amhara, Southern Nations, Sidama, Somali, and Afar. This will likely drive strikes at industrial parks, in public transportation and construction, demands for local ownership of projects (particularly during privatisations and contract renewals), and mining site invasions by illegal miners and looters.
Across Ethiopia, administrative boundary adjustments and (indefinitely postponed) elections will drive localised attack risks. In Benishangul-Gumuz, Somali region, western and southern Oromia, northwest Amhara, and southern Afar, armed groups pose small-arms attack risks to security forces, state-owned assets, local civilians, and road travellers and cargo. Large commercial investments, particularly inside industrial parks, are unlikely to be directly targeted. Successful Al-Shabaab IED attacks in Addis Ababa are unlikely, but Ethiopia remains an aspirational target for the group because of the presence of its troops in Somalia. Al-Shabaab attacks would be most likely in the Somali region or Addis Ababa. Infrequent gun and grenade attacks in Addis Ababa are probable, especially around protests.
Crime is a growing problem, including in urban areas, although crime levels are low by regional standards. Violent crime (particularly robbery) has increased in Addis Ababa, and while most incidents involve edged weapons rather than firearms (limiting death and injury risks), the use of firearms and fake police uniforms by criminals has also increased. There have also been multiple well-publicised police interceptions of large quantities of smuggled weapons, including into Addis Ababa. Cash-intensive businesses and locals are most likely to be robbery targets, but the risk also extends to expatriates. There will likely be marginal increases in opportunist theft among displaced populations from the drought, particularly around food distribution centres. The release of thousands of criminals from prison, in order to ease jail congestion during the COVID-19 pandemic, will likely act as a driver of higher petty crime. Organised crime is largely limited to rural banditry (especially on the road from Gondar to Sudan, southern Oromia and the Somali region), cattle rustling (especially in Somali region and southern Oromia), and bank robberies staged by the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA), which is particularly active in western and southern Oromia, and human trafficking to neighbouring countries.
Interstate war risks have decreased following Eritrea and Ethiopia's July 2018 peace declaration, ending the 18-year 'No peace, no war' stalemate, despite Eritrea's ongoing border closure. Although escalation to civil war is unlikely, the probability is increasing of security forces being drawn into escalating political competition ahead of indefinitely postponed elections (likely in mid-2021 at the earliest). Covert parallel structures of influence have emerged within federal and regional state security forces. A federal blockade in response to Tigray holding unilateral elections in early September is more likely than federal troops being deployed. War with Egypt is unlikely, despite differences over Nile water allocations and the planned Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over one year of age.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).
Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
The country is affected by extreme climates; both the rainy season which frequently causes flooding, and periods of drought have devastating consequences. Some 7.7 million people are struggling with famine in Ethiopia amid a severe and deadly drought.
Furthermore, Ethiopia is situated in a seismic zone.
The transportation infrastructure in the country is largely obsolete, insufficient, and degraded. During the rainy season (June to September), a number of roads are not navigable. The danger on highways is worsened by a general lack of adherence to traffic laws, the poor condition of many of the vehicles, and the lack of health facilities. The absence of street lighting and traffic lights makes traveling at night inadvisable. Instigators of traffic accidents are liable to face a fine or prison sentence. Following an accident, one should remain at the site and call the police. In cases of injury to a third party, one is expected to take the victim directly to hospital. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the mortality rate in Ethiopia is one of the highest in the world.
Outside of major cities, travel by road should be undertaken by day in an all-terrain vehicle (4x4), with a driver and preferably in convoy. One should also travel supplied with extra water and fuel. It is advisable to ensure that your vehicle is equipped with replacement parts (spare tire, cables, etc.) as well as telecommunications devices. Individuals should always carry a means of identification (e.g. passport and visa). During travel in the capital, it is advisable to communicate travel arrangements to a trusted confidant.
Intercity travel via road can prove perilous. Official and unofficial roadblocks are frequent. Furthermore it is recommended to remain vigilant when traveling in isolated regions; cases of armed theft, carjacking, and the presence of bandits have been reported across the country.
Public transport should be avoided. Taxis may be used provided that they have been ordered via telephone prior to being taken; taxis should not be hailed in the street. There is a railroad between Dire Daouna and Djibouti that has recently been constructed, however it is not advisable to use the rail system.
The safest means of transport within the country is plane. Ethiopian Airlines provides flights connecting all major cities.
The west and east of the country experience persistently high temperatures during the summer months. Only the central plateau has a more temperate climate (mild temperatures during the day, cool at night). The rainy season begins in mid-June and lasts until mid-September. Lighter rain is common in March and April.
|Police:||1 110 055|
|Ambulance:||1 613 622|
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz