France Country Report
Industrial action in France is frequent and well organised, often hampering business operations. The transport sector is frequently affected, with the most significant delays and cancellations in the one-year outlook likely to occur in the rail and aviation industries, as well as potential road blockades by truck drivers, rail workers, and other protest groups. In response to contested government reforms, trade unionists could also attempt to target oil refineries and depots with blockades, or cut the power supply to symbolic assets. Transport infrastructure in the capital is likely to be improved by the "New Greater Paris" project, due to be completed by 2030.
There is a high likelihood of attacks by Islamist militants using blades, firearms, or vehicles, as seen in the July 2016 Nice attack. Co-ordinated, marauding attacks such as those in Paris in November 2015 are less likely and would be rapidly neutralised given the greater preparedness of security forces. With 20,000 individuals suspected by the French authorities of having been radicalised, security forces are overstretched and unable to comprehensively mitigate the heightened threat despite having been granted greater powers and additional funding in 2015. Attacks against Muslim individuals and assets have been steadily increasing and tend to spike following jihadist attacks.
France has led international efforts to counter financial crime and tax evasion although these remain issues. Gang crime remains prevalent in southern French cities, such as Marseille and Grenoble. Corsican mafia groups are prevalent in both Corsica itself and southern French cities, although a combination of assassinations of senior figures and police investigations has hindered their operational ability in recent years. France is exposed to the trafficking of firearms from the Balkans, although since the uptick in terrorist attacks in 2015, greater efforts have been taken to stem their flow.
War risks on French soil are minimal given the country’s favourable relations with its neighbours. The government increased the defence budget for 2020 by EUR1.7 billion to EUR37.5 billion, with the aim of increasing its military capability. France maintains a strong military presence, and capacity to intervene, in its former African colonies. The stated goals of French intervention centre on preventing humanitarian disaster, disrupting terrorist networks, restoring territorial integrity and national sovereignty, and consolidating political processes leading to democratic elections. France will continue to play a prominent role in the fight against global terrorism and is a key player in the campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq, Syria, and Libya.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
The risk of flooding is relatively high; 5 to 7 percent of France's territory is located in flood zones. In November 1999, flooding in areas of Aude and Pyrénées-Orientales departments left some 30 people dead. Strong winter storms, such as Xynthia in February 2010, also occasionally strike the country. This storm brought violent winds and very high tides, which generated unprecedented flooding, leaving some 40 people dead, principally in the Vendée, Charente-Maritime, and des Côtes d'Armor departments. In October 2015, floods in the southeast of the country killed at least 18 people. More recently, in February 2017, the French Meteorological Institute - Météo France - issued red alerts for several departments, including Charente, Charente-Maritime, and Gironde, due to severe wind.
France has a temperate climate with four main climatic regions.
In the west, the climate is oceanic and humid, with mild winters and relatively cool summers.
The climate in Alsace, Lorraine, along the Rhone corridor, and in mountainous regions (Alps, Pyrenees, Central Massif) is semi-continental with harsh winters and hot summers.
In the north (Paris and Central Region), winters are cold and summers hot.
The south of France enjoys a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot summers.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz