French Guiana Country Report
The operational environment is adequate, although infrastructure such as transport and communications tends to be poorer in the interior. Unions remain powerful, the most important being the Union of Guianese Workers, which is affiliated to the opposition Socialist Party of Guiana (PSG). The risk of union-led protests over economic grievances and unemployment induced by the COVID-19-virus outbreak are likely to increase in a 12-month outlook, particularly when government support for businesses and employees is phased out. Sectors vulnerable to strike action include education, health, and transport. Foreign investors are likely to come across low levels of corruption, such as bribery among local government officials.
The threat of terrorism is moderate. The jihadist threat faced in mainland France does not extend to French Guiana and the Front National de Libération de la Guyane (FNLG) has been inactive since the 1980s. Following terrorist attacks on mainland France since January 2015, France has increased security and patrols around major infrastructure, including the Félix Eboué airport and the Guiana Space Centre near Kourou, and in commercial areas. France has increased co-operation with neighbouring Brazil and Suriname.
Illegal gold miners operate in hundreds of sites across French Guiana's interior. In 2018, the authorities dismantled 765 illegal mining sites, compared with 609 detected in 2017. French security forces estimated in November 2019 that up to 10,000 illegal miners are involved in the extraction of around 10 tonnes of illegally mined gold each year. Armed robberies targeting gold mines are on the rise since 2019, with 8 incidents reported in Q1 2020. The murder rate remains one of the highest in France, but is primarily drug related. Relatively low volumes of cocaine transit French Guiana to Europe as a result of the territory's distance from the Caribbean's main transit routes.
The risk of civil or interstate war in French Guiana is low. The territorial integrity of French Guiana is guaranteed by mainland France and its significant military resources, detached to French Guiana under the “Harpie” operation. As a result, the minor border dispute with Suriname is unlikely to lead to conflict. Calls for independence in French Guiana are muted, and civil war risks remain low despite a semi-permanent background of social unrest over crime, the cost of living and public services. State use of force is likely to be limited to cracking down on illegal gold mining, logging activities, drug trafficking and illegal immigration from Suriname and Brazil.
Vaccines required to enter the country
Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for all travelers over one year of age upon entry to the country. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease; it should be taken ten days in advance to be fully effective.
Vaccines recommended for all travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines recommended for most travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).
Vaccines recommended for some travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Malaria: There is currently no malaria vaccine. However, various antimalarial prophylactics are available by prescription and can reduce risk of infection by up to 90 percent. Different medications are prescribed depending on the risk level and the strains of the virus present in the destination. Antimalarial tablets need to be taken throughout the trip to be effective and may need to be taken for as long as four weeks following the trip.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
The rainy season lasts from December to July. Floods, which can disrupt ground transportation, often occur during this time.
The Northern Atlantic hurricane season lasts from June 1 to November 30. While hurricanes and tropical storms rarely hit French Guiana directly, storm systems can bring torrential rains, winds, and associated flooding and material damage to the region.
The rainy season lasts from January until June, with a peak of rain in May and a relative respite in March. Temperatures are higher in the forest than along the coastline; however, nights there are much cooler. Humidity levels are generally high along the coast where temperatures remain steady (28°C).
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