Country Reports

Gambia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Gambia is continuing, with some success, to source substantial foreign investment after years of stagnation under the dictatorial rule of Yahya Jammeh. The EU signed a EUR75-million support package in February 2019, with a promise of a further EUR150 million to come, aimed at enabling the government to stabilise its budgetary position, and pay salaries and bills. China is likely to continue being heavily courted, though, as the most likely source of funding for major infrastructure, tourism, and agriculture projects. Attempts to capitalise on potentially lucrative offshore oil blocks situated in an area where major discoveries have been made in Senegalese waters are likely to mean Gambia being forced into a financial settlement over rights confiscated from original holder African Petroleum in order to avoid lengthy arbitration procedures. Security services full of senior level appointees from the Jammeh era still need careful restructuring to reduce the risk of coup plots. The government has raised concerns over a July 2018 recording in which Jammeh pledged to return from exile in Equatorial Guinea. However, the largely Senegal-supplied ECOMIG peacekeeping force is likely to remain until at least the end of 2019 and should preserve stability. Sustained political stability, a recovering tourism sector, the return of bilateral investment partners offering financial support, and a better agricultural season have led IHS Markit to increase Gambia’s GDP growth predictions to 4.9% for 2018 and 4.8% in 2019.
Last update: March 26, 2019

Operational Outlook

Industrial action has been rare due to former president Yahya Jammeh's regime's threatening of union leaders and workers alike, and the habit of organising strikes is likely to take time to acquire. Corruption is less significant than in most of West Africa, but is likely to increase gradually now the threat of possibly severe official retribution has been removed. Demands for facilitation payments had in any case remained common despite Jammeh's public claim of zero tolerance for such practices. Power and water shortages have become more frequent since the second half of 2017.

Last update: July 5, 2018



The Senegalese commander of the ECOMIG peacekeeping force in Gambia warned in July 2017 that exiled high-ranking former officials were plotting with hostile elements of the Gambian security forces. President Barrow has contended such claims are exaggerated, yet asked in January 2018 for the ECOMIG contingent to be doubled to 1,000 after previously being phased down. Only in September 2018 did Gambian soldiers take over responsibility for guarding the presidency when a group of 200 returned from training in Senegal. The risk of kidnap, sporadic armed attacks, and robbery by Casamance rebels along southern highways is diminishing further.

Last update: October 9, 2018

War Risks

The departure in January 2017 of Yahya Jammeh as president virtually eradicates any risk of uninvited military incursions by Senegal which facilitated the eventual installation of Adama Barrow. However, the government expressed concern in July 2018 when the exiled Jammeh was heard pledging to return to Gambia in a recorded conversation with a senior official of his former ruling APRC party. This suggests some degree of organised resistance to central government control will persist in Jammeh's still volatile home region of Foni. On his first visit to Foni in March 2018, President Barrow openly accused local leaders of hosting Casamance separatist militants.

Last update: October 9, 2018

Social Stability


Political protest and civil unrest have been rare because of fear of arbitrary arrests, prolonged detention and torture under the Yahya Jammeh regime. The advent of competitive democracy will gradually bring more political and union demonstrations. Attempts to hold protests in November 2017 targeting utility supplier NAWEC were dispersed by police citing security reasons. The fatal shooting of three people protesting against sand mining in Faraba Banta on 18 June 2018 has focused attention on police ill-discipline and propensity to use violence, although five officers have been charged with murder and the police chief resigned, underlining a new era of accountability.

Last update: October 9, 2018

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over nine months of age.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Gambia's climate is subtropical and the country experiences two seasons. During the dry season (October to June), the Harmattan, a dry and dusty trade wind from the Sahara, often blows across the country between December to February. The rainy season lasts from July until November and often brings with it torrential rains and tornados. Temperatures are constant and high throughout the year and conditions are often sunny.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +220
Ambulance: 16
Police: 17
Fire Dept.: 18


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019