Country Reports

Germany Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Leadership renewal in the ruling coalition parties, combined with a significant decline in electoral support, is a destabilising factor for the government. In the event of an early or regular general election, the "grand coalition" between Chancellor Angela Merkel's CDU, its Bavarian ally CSU, and the SPD would be highly unlikely to continue, making CDU/CSU collaboration with the currently successful Green Party the most likely outcome.The government's policy priorities are likely to be influenced by the three coalition partners' attempts to sharpen their profiles. Nevertheless, the government's current policy agenda continues to ensure a stable investment environment. Germany's budget surplus assists the government's plans to increase public spending.In the coming years, German economic growth is unlikely to return to the robust 2.0% pace observed during 2014–18. Owing to restraining forces from slower global demand, lingering (US-initiated) trade protectionism, concerns about EU-UK trade relations after Brexit, and mounting structural adjustment pressures in Germany's key automotive industry, we expect growth to fluctuate around just 0.5% in 2019–20 and just above 1.0% in 2021–22.Conversely, Germany is reasonably well protected against the risk of a severe recession thanks to a structurally strong construction sector (demographics, ultra-low interest rates), ample fiscal leeway from years of budget surpluses to boost public spending, and the fact that consumers did not overstretch themselves during the years of healthy income growth. Inflation will thus stay steady at near-target levels at or just above 1.5% in 2020–21.Germany faces a heightened risk of both low-capability and more sophisticated jihadist attacks carried out by lone actors or small cells inspired but not necessarily directed by non-state armed groups. Assaults with rudimentary weapons such as knives, vehicle-impact attacks, shootings, or a combination of these remain likely. Soft targets such as transport hubs and music and sport venues face the most risk.
Last update: February 18, 2020

Operational Outlook

Germany is likely to maintain its favourable business and investment environment benefiting from a highly skilled workforce overall during the current administrative term and also in the event of possible early elections. Labour unions have substantial influence on policy-making; industrial action particularly affects the aviation, metalworking, railway, and cargo sectors, while union protests against international IT companies are also likely. Corruption risks are low, with strong anti-corruption enforcement mechanisms in place. A new law to establish a register (Wettbewerbsregister) of companies whose executives have been found guilty of corruption charges is set to come into force in 2020. Companies listed there will be excluded from public tenders.

Last update: December 21, 2019



Germany faces a heightened risk of both low-capability and more sophisticated terrorist attacks launched by lone actors or small cells directly linked to non-state militant groups such as the Islamic State or inspired by their ideology. Soft targets, such as transport hubs, bars and restaurants, music and sport venues, shopping centres, or public spaces near tourist attractions, are likely to be most at risk. Incidents such as the murder of regional politician Walter Lübcke and the October 2019 synagogue shooting with improvised firearms in Halle demonstrate an increased risk stemming from either organised or individual far-right terrorism.

Last update: December 21, 2019


Germany faces threats from various forms of organised crime, including money laundering, illegal weapons transfers, data theft, and human trafficking. Transnational smuggling networks are increasingly hard to track without rigorous international co-operation. The German authorities assess that the line between organised crime and terrorism is becoming increasingly blurred and that Islamist extremists are raising funds for terrorist activity through criminal means. The heightened risk of terrorist attacks over recent years has led to contested calls for a more centralised police response in matters of constitutional defence. In December 2019, the government announced steps to significantly boost the fight against far-right activism.

Last update: December 21, 2019

War Risks

Inter-state war risks are likely to remain very low because of Germany's friendly diplomatic and economic relations with its neighbours and many other states around the world. The country is closely integrated into the EU, NATO, and other international organisations, and its support for international security missions is set to intensify. A new NATO command centre is to be built in the southern German city of Ulm as a response to Russia's Eastern Europe policy. Moreover, Germany's defence budget is being raised under Defence Secretary Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, including further investment in cyber security to avert digital attacks on online networks and weapons systems.

Last update: December 21, 2019

Social Stability


There is currently a heightened risk of anti-Islam, anti-immigration, and anti-government protests, often triggering counter-demonstrations. Right-wing movements are likely to continue expanding their online communication networks, which facilitate the rapid organisation of both authorised and spontaneous illegal rallies at short notice, making it more challenging for security forces to estimate the number of participants and to prevent violent escalations by deploying appropriate tactics. Far-left protests are particularly likely in urban areas and usually turn violent on May Day. Environmental activism and farmers protest are likely to cause disruption.

Last update: December 21, 2019

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks


Heavy snowfall during winter can significantly disrupt traffic, especially outside urban areas. Air and rail travel are most affected by winter weather conditions. Flooding during autumn and winter is possible. In January 2017, the northeast of the country was touched by Storm Axel (the most severe storm since 2006), which was responsible for costly material damage.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Over 3475 road deaths have been reported throughout 2015 in Germany (4.3 road deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Road maintenance can seem less extensive in some other western European countries. The road network is, however, in a satisfactory state. Driving can be dangerous during winter, especially in the east.

Vehicle exclusion zones exist in some city centers. Pedestrians and drivers are advised to be careful of the many cyclists in Germany. Moreover, pedestrians who fail to comply with prohibitions on crossing the street when streetlights are red risk the assessment of a fine, and are liable in the event of an accident.

The rail network is excellent; frequent and rapid service links principal German and European cities.

Due to the ongoing migrant crisis and consequent border checkpoints implemented between Denmark, Sweden, Austria, and Germany, public transportation between these four countries can be disrupted. Allow ample time for your journey when traveling by road, train, or ferry.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Germany has a continental climate: very hot and dry in the summer and cold and rainy in the winter. In the north of the country, along the Baltic coast, the climate is more temperate (humid and cooler in the summer).

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +49
Police: 110 or 112
Fire Dept., Ambulance: 112


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019