Country Reports

Guatemala Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

President Jimmy Morales is likely to remain in power until the presidential election in June 2019, despite three legal attempts by the attorney general to impeach him and make him stand trial for irregular election financing and corruption. He denies the allegations. Anti-corruption protests are likely to continue against the Morales administration, numbering in the 10,000s. These are considerably smaller than demonstrations against previous administrations, which reached over 200,000 in the capital, Guatemala City. Electoral politics and persistent corruption allegations including campaign financing irregularities against several of the main parties indicate that electoral politics in Congress will delay the passage of the legislative agenda including ILO-related labour legislation and foreign business investment regulator changes. Guatemala's crime environment is dominated by the MS-13 and M-18 gangs. Security indicators including homicide rates have improved in recent years after reaching a high of 46.4 per 100,000 in 2009. Officially reported homicide rates have decrease to about 23 per 100,000 in 2018 with 85% of murders committed with a firearm. Hotspots include the departments of Escuintla, Guatemala, and Zacapa. Extractive and resource development sectors including mining and hydropower will community opposition over environmental issues and consultation concerns in Alta Vera Paz, Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, and Santa Rosa. Activists are likely to challenge projects through the temporary detention of on-site employees, sabotage of buildings and materials, and legal challenges in the courts. Projects will continue to face high court-ordered suspension and delay risks. IHS Markit expects GDP growth to reach 3.3% in 2019 supported by consumer spending and exports. Subdued growth levels in recent years have reflected low government investment, primarily in infrastructure. Economic growth will be supported by a continuation of healthy consumer spending as a result of strong remittance inflows and controlled consumer prices. © 2018, IHS Markit Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.
Last update: January 9, 2019

Operational Outlook

Guatemala has been pursuing anti-corruption and tax evasion investigations with international support, affecting all business sectors. Contracts awarded during the previous two administrations are at greatest risk of judicial investigation, contract alteration, and fines although incumbent government-issued contracts may also be investigated beginning in 2019. Enforcement of legal contracts is weakened by an ineffective judiciary. Mining-sector concessions risk permit suspensions over environmental and community consultation compliance issues. Demonstrations against resource extraction and development continue increase installation damage risks. The regulatory burden and business start-up framework have improved since 2014, when registration procedures were consolidated online.

Last update: November 9, 2018



There are no known terrorist groups operating in Guatemala. However, criminal groups, including transnational criminal organisations and street gangs conduct targeted assassinations and use grenades to target business infrastructure as extortion payment enforcement measures. Such actions are typically economically rather than politically motivated. Some former members of Guatemala's intelligence and security establishments accused of terrorist acts during the country's 36-year civil war have since instigated crime and corruption rings that reach the highest levels of government, but these are unlikely to significantly threaten government stability through terrorist activities.

Last update: November 10, 2018

War Risks

The threat of war in Guatemala remains low despite several incidents on the border with Belize. Hotspots include the Sarstoon River delta and Chiquibul National Park. The border issue is likely to be resolved diplomatically, most likely with a referral to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which has been addressing aspects of the territorial claims since 2008. Guatemala is also unlikely to see a return of internal conflict after a 36-year civil war was resolved in 1996. Most of the rebel groups involved in the conflict have disbanded or joined formal political processes.

Last update: November 10, 2018

Social Stability


Guatemala faces frequent social unrest with the power to disrupt transportation, frustrate commercial projects, and destabilise the government. Anti-corruption protests like those over 2016–18 can attract tens of thousands of protesters and previously have provoked government change in 2015. Labour strikes have significant power to influence policy developments like the cargo transport strike in October-November 2016 that generated losses worth USD456 million over a change to circulation schedules in Guatemala City. Community activism in opposition of resource development projects is also strong, particularly in Guatemala's north-east, periodically resulting in localised property damages.

Last update: November 10, 2018

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccines required to enter the country

Yellow fever: There is no risk of contracting yellow fever in Guatemala. However, the government requires proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from countries with a risk of yellow fever transmission. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease.

Vaccines recommended for all travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines recommended for most travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).

Vaccines recommended for some travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Malaria: There is currently no malaria vaccine. However, various antimalarial prophylactics are available by prescription and can reduce risk of infection by up to 90 percent. Different medications are prescribed depending on the risk level and the strains of the virus present in the destination. Antimalarial tablets need to be taken throughout the trip to be effective and may need to be taken for as long as four weeks following the trip.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks


Guatemala is highly vulnerable to natural disasters.

Powerful earthquakes regularly strike the country. In 1976, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale left 26,000 dead and devastated parts of the country. More recently, an 8.2-magnitude offshore earthquake struck the region in September 2017, resulting in damages in the southwestern department of San Marcos.

Offshore earthquakes can trigger tsunamis. If in a coastal area when an earthquake strikes, immediately look to see if a tsunami alert has been issued (either by the government or the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center). If in doubt, move inland following tsunami evacuation routes if designated and/or seek higher ground.

The country is also home to a number of active volcanoes, including the Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito volcanoes. Eruptions have been known to result in flight disruptions, including at Guatemala City's La Aurora International Airport (GUA).

Guatemala is vulnerable to hurricanes, tropical storms, and tropical storm remnants coming from both the Pacific and Caribbean. The Pacific hurricane season officially runs from May 15 to November 30, and the Atlantic hurricane season from June 1 to November 30. In June 2014, Tropical Storm Boris caused flooding and property damage, along with five deaths.

Torrential rains can lead to deadly flooding and landslides, particularly during the rainy season (May/June to November). Some 300 people were killed in a landslide that buried the village of El Cambray Dos (15 km [10 mi] east of the capital) in October 2015; another 12 people died in a landslide in San Pedro Soloma in June 2017. Furthermore, severe flooding in September/October 2017 left at least 26 people dead and hundreds of thousands of people affected; numerous roads and bridges were blocked by the floodwaters.

Forest fires are common during the dry season.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Driving conditions are dangerous due to poorly maintained roads, lack of lighting, and unsafe driving habits; fatal accidents are common. Additionally, accidents or general road rage have been known to lead to violent confrontations.

There are also significant risks on roads and highways due to the presence of criminal elements, notably in rural areas. Attacks and other criminal activities along highways in rural areas, notably in border regions (e.g. Petén department), due to the presence of arms, human, and drug traffickers. Criminals sometimes erect roadblocks to force cars to stop before their occupants are robbed or assaulted, including during the day.

Driving at night outside of cities should be avoided whenever possible and travel in groups of two or more vehicles is recommended. In cities, always drive with windows rolled up, doors locked, and valuable items stored out of sight; when in heavy traffic, leave room to maneuver between you and the car ahead.

Crime and accident rates are high on public transportation, notably municipal buses in the capital, as well as on intercity buses. Bus drivers and passengers may also be attacked by gang members in the context of extortion rackets and thus most buses should be avoided. Transmetro buses can be considered relatively safe.

Never hail a taxi off the street and only use official companies (e.g. Taxi Amarillo and Taxi Seguro), called in advance. Unlicensed taxi drivers have been known to rob or assault their passengers. 

Note that crime rates tend to be particularly high around airports.

Last update: April 5, 2019


The Central American countries' electricity grids are connected by a single 1820-km (1130-mi) electricity line, making them particularly susceptible to power outages.  There were seven blackouts that have affected all of Central America between 2010 and 2017.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Guatemala has a hot and humid tropical climate. The dry season lasts from November until March (mild temperatures, low humidity) and the rainy season from June until October. Humidity during the rainy season, accompanied by high temperatures (38°C), is often stifling, particularly along the Pacific coast. Nights are generally cold in mountainous areas.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +502
Fire Dept. volontaires: 110
Fire Dept. municipaux: 123
Emergency Services: 911


Voltage: 120 V ~ 60 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019