Country Reports

Hungary Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Since 2010, Hungary has been ruled by the national-conservative Fidesz party, tightly controlled by Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. Strong popular support for Fidesz (constitutional, two-thirds parliamentary majority since 2018) ensures exceptional government stability by regional standards. The outcome of the October 2019 municipal elections, in which Fidesz suffered a handful of defeats (including the mayoral position in the capital, Budapest), is highly unlikely to change this significantly.In its response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus outbreak, the Hungarian government has announced a state of emergency. Orbán on 16 March said that this would also involve closing borders to all private traffic, including its two international airports. Transport of goods will continue; however, delays are likely. The government will most likely prioritise small- and medium-sized enterprises for its incentives and job-saving programmes.Hungary’s real GDP growth is forecast to decelerate sharply to 2.0% in 2020 amid the COVID-19 virus outbreak. Downside risks stem from the uncertainty surrounding the extent and duration of the outbreak and a likely slow normalisation of international relations. Consumer price inflation is likely to weaken in 2020–21, reflecting the steep drop in global commodity prices, particularly oil. The Hungarian National Bank is likely to maintain loose monetary policy until mid-2021 in a bid to support the economy amid the virus outbreak.
Last update: March 19, 2020

Operational Outlook

Historically, attitudes towards foreign investment have generally been positive and Hungary has benefitted from strong foreign direct investment inflows. Nonetheless, several measures of the Fidesz government – such as ad-hoc taxes on selected industries in which foreign companies mainly operate – and its often arbitrary legislation and appetite for centralisation have made Hungary's operational environment less predictable. Red tape remains cumbersome. High-level corruption and clientelism is likely to remain a problem, particularly in government- and EU-funded infrastructure projects. Labour rules are flexible and militancy low, but weak mobility, a rigid education system, and emigration have caused a shortage of workers; in turn boosting wage demands and strike risks.

Last update: January 23, 2020



The record-high influx of refugees via Hungary into the EU increased national concerns regarding potential terrorist attacks, particularly in the wake of numerous acts of terrorism in Western Europe since 2015. Hungarian treatment of refugees has been controversial, including the use of force (tear gas and water cannons) to maintain order at borders. That being said, the country remains an unlikely target of Islamist militant groups. Ethnically motivated violence, targeted primarily at members of the Roma and various immigrant communities, is the primary terrorism risk in Hungary.

Last update: January 17, 2020


Homicide rates have fluctuated in recent years, but are largely in line with the EU average and very low in a global comparison. Reported crime rates have fallen in recent years, but mostly because of statistical methodology changes and legal amendments related to definitions of crimes and misdemeanours. Fraud, including some high-profile cases, remains problematic, while drug use and related criminal activities are rising in some poor rural areas and pockets of the capital, Budapest. Thefts of unattended vehicles, and pick-pocketing on public transport, remain common in Budapest. Car thefts are often carried out by foreign gangs, which then export the cars. In organised crime, transnational gangs (mostly originating from Balkan countries) increasingly dominate areas such as drugs and people trafficking, counterfeiting, and money laundering.

Last update: January 17, 2020

War Risks

The risk of Hungary being involved in an inter-state military conflict or the likelihood of civil war occurring in the country is low. The issue of Hungarian minorities occasionally tests diplomatic ties between Hungary and its neighbours (mainly Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine), but this is highly likely to be contained at the diplomatic and political level. Hungary is also part of the EU (alongside Slovakia and Romania), which mitigates the risk further; whereas its membership in NATO (likewise alongside Slovakia and Romania) will act as an additional forceful deterrent against external assault.

Last update: January 17, 2020

Social Stability


Pro- and anti-government protests will occur occasionally in Hungary, typically attracting several thousand people. They have the potential to cause some disruption to businesses and traffic, mainly in central Budapest. If held, they are unlikely to last for longer than a few hours or a day at a time. Violence is rare and is likely to target mostly police or security personnel, or other protesters. Government premises or vehicles would be the most probable targets for vandalism during these protests. Environmental and anti-globalisation movements exist, but remain underdeveloped and organise mainly as peaceful social movements.

Last update: January 23, 2020

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Hungary has a moderate continental climate.

Winters are harsh and snowy; summers are long and can become quite hot and thunderstorms are common. The country receives large amounts of rain in February and March.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +36
Police: 107 or 112
Tourist Police: 438 80 80
Fire Dept.: 105 or 112
Ambulance: 104 or 311 16 66 or 112


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019