Country Reports

Kosovo Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The two main opposition parties, the centre-left Self-determination party (Lëvizja Vetëvendosje: LVV) and the centre-right Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës: LDK), received the most votes in the 6 October 2019 general election. Given that neither party commands a parliamentary majority, they are currently in talks to form a government, but disagreement over the distribution of ministerial portfolios has precluded a breakthrough. If LVV leader Albin Kurti fails to secure parliament's backing within the next two weeks, the mandate to form government will go to someone else. Should the next candidate also fail, Kosovo would be forced toward new elections. The economy's structural weaknesses are likely to remain. These include weak productive capacities reflected in low exports and persistent large trade deficits, a large grey economy, reliance on remittances to fund consumption, and large unemployment and inactivity rates.
Last update: January 23, 2020

Operational Outlook

Local infrastructure has started to improve as a result of domestic and international investments. The international community has invested EUR4 billion into improving Kosovo's road and rail networks. One major concern for businesses operating in Kosovo is unreliable power supply. The 400 kV interconnection line with Albania, which is yet to become operational, will serve to diversify Kosovo's energy sources and increase energy security. Another key concern for businesses in Kosovo is widespread corruption; however, the election of the two main opposition parties to power will likely serve to partially unravel established patronage networks.

Last update: February 18, 2020


Attempts by the central government to fully extend its authority to Northern Kosovo would increase the risk of attacks against police by armed members of the local Serb community.

Last update: February 12, 2020


Organised crime is a major concern in Kosovo because of poor law enforcement. The security threat in the Serb-dominated north is substantially higher than in the rest of the country because of a lack of proper policing in the region. This is mainly due to the Serb minority's reluctance to recognise the legitimacy of the central state and its security apparatus. The relative absence of government authority in the region has facilitated the spread of criminal networks that benefit from preserving the status quo.

Last update: February 18, 2020

War Risks

On 28 May, police carried out raids in Northern Kosovo, arresting 20 individuals accused of smuggling contraband and other criminal activities. The police action was met with harsh criticisms from the Serbian government, which put the Serbian Army on high alert, ostensibly to prepare the defence of the Kosovo Serbs. Such actions and rhetoric primarily constitute political posturing and do not entail a high risk of armed interstate conflict given the continued presence of international peacekeeping troops in Kosovo. However, Serbia is well positioned to stoke instability in Northern Kosovo through proxies in the region. The parallel institutions in Northern Kosovo are largely financed by Serbia, and illegal arms are widespread.

Last update: December 13, 2019

Social Stability

Socio-economic factors, such as high levels of unemployment, widespread poverty and corruption are ingredients that fuel popular disaffection. Such protests frequently escalate into violence between police and protesters, often resulting in damages to government property.

Last update: February 18, 2020

Health Risk

Vaccines Required to Enter the Country


Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post-exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Last update: July 1, 2019

Practical Information


Kosovo has a moderate Mediterranean climate: winters (November to March) are snowy and summers are hot and humid (May to September). In mountainous regions, temperatures are considerably colder and snow accumulation can make road travel hazardous and at times impassable. The average annual temperature is 9.5°C (49°F), with average highs of 19°C (66°F) in the summer months and lows of −1°C (30 °F) in winter.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +383
Police: 192
Fire Department: 193
Medical Emergencies: 194


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: July 1, 2019