Malawi Country Report
Malawi has made recent advances in regulations easing starting a business, but investors face other obstacles. Corruption, including requests for bribes, is a notable risk. Strikes and labour-related protests will most certainly escalate among civil servants. Operational obstacles for businesses also lie in Malawi's poor basic infrastructure: the country is landlocked and high transport costs are exacerbated by poor roads. The labour market is poorly developed, with skilled labour being limited. The legal system is often subject to delay through budgetary shortfalls.
No major non-state armed groups are active in Malawi, with the terrorism threat being minimal. A de-escalation in fighting between government forces and Mozambican National Resistance (Resistência Nacional Moçambicana: RENAMO) militants in neighbouring Mozambique has led most Mozambican refugees to leave Malawi and return home. In March 2016, UN refugee agency UNHCR indicated that refugee numbers in Malawi had climbed to around 11,500, with most arriving in Kapise, some 5 km from the joint border. .
Crime levels are generally low, but are increasing. This includes petty theft, as well as burglary, in urban areas, including in Lilongwe and Blantyre. Armed vehicle theft and carjacking is becoming more frequent. Businesses, especially Asian owned, have been targeted by armed robbers and other criminals. In July 2013, the Chinese embassy called on the Malawian government to address rising crime. A number of police officers have been accused of involvement in crimes such as armed robberies, including at banks. Malawi has also experienced increased incidents of mob justice; poor police work has reportedly contributed to declining public confidence in the security forces.
A previously dormant border row between Malawi and Tanzania over Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa) was reignited in 2011 when Malawi began issuing licences for oil and gas exploration in a disputed portion of the lake. Military conflict is unlikely, with diplomatic avenues and regional mediation being pursued. Malawi is likely to seek a ruling from the International Court of Justice if Tanzania challenges the jurisdiction of oil blocks 35N and 35S issued by Malawi.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for travelers over one year of age arriving from or having passed through countries with risk of yellow fever (YFV) transmission and for travelers who have been in transit >12 hours in an airport located in a country with risk of YFV transmission.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
There is a risk of earthquakes in Malawi; in 2009, a series of quakes hit the areas around Karonga, northern Malawi, with some registering 6.2-magnitude, resulting in a number of fatalities and damage to infrastructure.
The country also experiences severe flooding during the rainy season (November to April). In January 2015, deadly flooding killed 200 and directly impacted 100,000 others. It is imperative to research road and weather conditions before traveling by car during the rainy season.
Roads tend to be in poor condition, which, in combination with other factors (e.g. the presence of animals and people on the sides of roads, vehicles traveling after dark without lights), makes for dangerous driving conditions. Road conditions are particularly poor during the country's rainy season, resulting in washouts and potholes. Malawi has one of the highest rates of road accidents on the African continent. Avoid driving after dark.
Travel by public transport is not recommended. Public transport is extremely limited and consists primarily of unregulated private mini-buses and pick-up trucks used to travel between towns, which are overburdened and dangerous. Larger coach services between major towns are safer and more reliable. Bicycle taxis and small motorized tricycles used as public transport in urban areas are also unsafe. Emergency services are limited.
It should also be noted that there is very limited tourist infrastructure outside of large urban centers. Even main urban areas may face shortages in power and electricity.
Malawi's climate is tropical and the country experiences two seasons: the dry season (May to October) and the rainy season (November to April).
Heavy rains are common throughout the country, particularly in plateau regions and the northwest. Temperatures are often high in valleys and cooler at higher elevations.
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