Country Reports

Mongolia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The Mongolian government is under pressure to lift existing travel and mineral trading restrictions due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus outbreak. However, given significant numbers of COVID-19 cases in neighbouring countries, full normalisation is unlikely in the coming quarter, although a partial resumption of economic flows with mainland China is likely. The government of Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh will likely retain fiscal discipline in accordance with Mongolia’s 2017 International Monetary Fund loan facility even as he unwinds some of his predecessor’s austerity measures. Mongolia’s potential inclusion in the European Commission’s “black list” and current placement in the Financial Action Task Force’s “grey list” indicates that all businesses operating there – especially capital-intensive projects in the mining and transportation sectors – will face elevated risks of operational disruptions and contract alterations resulting from funding disruptions and financial uncertainties. Financial institutions in nations with strong anti-money laundering and countering financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) frameworks will face increased pressure to reduce exposure to businesses in grey-listed nations.The Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) government remains internally stable and continues to dominate the unicameral parliament with 62 of 76 seats following the general election on 24 June. Discontent with MPP’s governance mostly surrounds allegations of corruption, misuse of state funds, air pollution, employment, and economic opportunities. These issues are likely to be highlighted by the opposition ahead of the presidential election in June 2021. GDP growth is gradually recovering, but IHS Markit projects a contraction of 3.54% this year. FDI has returned and the fiscal deficit has narrowed and enjoys the support of a USD5.5-billion IMF facility. Although the government welcomes foreign investment, popular resource nationalism will probably prompt renegotiations of key mining concessions.
Last update: August 25, 2020

Operational Outlook

Industrial action is tightly regulated and industrial unrest is rare. The regulatory environment can be cumbersome, and corruption among all ranks of government is widespread. Irregularities at foreign mining concessions and corruption within the ruling party (MPP) are likely to receive heightened scrutiny under the administration of President Khaltmaagiin Battulga, who was elected to office on a platform of resource nationalism.

Last update: July 4, 2020



Mongolia has a number of small extreme nationalist groups that occasionally assault Chinese nationals. There are no domestic terrorist organisations, and significant terrorist attacks are unlikely. Government buildings around Chinggis Kahan square in Ulaanbaatar are vulnerable to lone-actor attacks by individuals. However, attacks on commercial assets outside Ulaanbaatar, including major mines, or infrastructure links with China and Russia, are very unlikely.

Last update: July 3, 2020


There are low risks of organised crime across the country. Mongolia’s position between China and Russia, sparsely populated territory, and lack of resources for border security make the country vulnerable to increasing criminality, including drug and human trafficking. Prosecution and conviction of traffickers has increased during the past few years and the government has indicated its commitment to tackle the problem through co-operation with neighbouring countries, especially members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and anti-trafficking non-governmental organisations.

Last update: August 19, 2020

War Risks

Landlocked between Russia and China, Mongolia maintains good relations with both neighbours. Accordingly, the risk of war with either country is low. The government is working closely with the governments of China and Russia to better integrate Mongolia's transportation network with those of its neighbours as part of a trilateral Economic Corridor plan. President Battulga has also sought to maintain bilateral ties with both sides, despite having run on an anti-China platform. Mongolia has a small military that is increasingly oriented towards supporting global peacekeeping and anti-terrorism operations. It conducts regular exercises with China, India, Russia, and the US through its “Exercise Khaan Quest” joint military exercises.

Last update: July 3, 2020

Social Stability


Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh's economic and socially oriented agenda has been undermined by widespread allegations of corruption and criminal activities in the Mongolian government. Several large-scale protests, from thousands to 15,000 people, have occurred in 2018 and 2019. The majority of protests are organised by opposition Democratic Party, and this will likely intensify as Mongolia approaches election season in 2020. However, protests are mostly peaceful and widespread damage to commercial assets is highly unlikely. Protests concerning the natural resource sector occur periodically over alleged corruption and wealth inequality, but all are almost entirely peaceful and present little risk to individuals or commercial property.

Last update: July 4, 2020

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Tick-Borne Encephalitis: If traveling to a rural area in the spring or of traveling to the north of the country in the summer.

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

The western part of the country occasionally experiences seismic activity; several earthquakes with magnitudes of 8.0 or higher were recorded in the 20th century. The last major earthquake took place in December 1957 in Gobi-Altay.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Entry into the country by road requires advanced authorization from Mongolian authorities. Additionally, travelers entering the country by train are strongly encouraged to travel first class. Occasionally extreme meteorological conditions, particularly during winter months, can cause disruptions (delays and cancelations) to flights to, from, and within the country; furthermore, domestic carriers do not always adhere to international aviation security standards. According to recent reports, a number of travelers have had their luggage stolen – sometimes violently – by taxi drivers and thieves waiting at taxi stands. On a similar note, travelers are advised against using “shared taxis,” which are fairly unreliable. Road conditions in the country are frequently poor and far below European standards; snow storms in winter months can seriously hinder access to rural areas. Foreigners visiting the country in winter should also be conscious of the risk of hypothermia as temperatures can fall to -40°C (-40°F). Finally, it should be noted that after having exempted nationals from 42 countries from needing visas for visits of less than 30 days in 2014 and 2015, the Mongolian government reestablished this requirement effective January 1, 2016.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Mongolia's climate is dry and sunny but sudden changes in temperature can be extreme no matter the season.

Sandstorms can strike in the spring. Temperatures are mild in the north during the summer months and hot, even scorching, in the south (Gobi Desert). Rain is most common in the summer. Temperatures quickly become cold in the autumn with snow arriving as early as September. Winter is harsh (-30°C to -40°C) with little snow.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +976
Police: 102
Fire Dept.: 101
Ambulance: 103


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019