Country Reports

Mongolia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Despite its popularity being eroded by fiscal austerity and now negotiating with a newly elected president from the opposition Democratic Party, the Mongolian People's Party (MPP) government remains internally stable and dominates the unicameral parliament with 65 of its 76 seats. The affinity between the MPP prime minister and the Democratic Party state-president on many key issues also reduces the likelihood of political impasses. GDP growth is gradually recovering from its 2016 nadir. FDI has returned and the fiscal deficit has narrowed and enjoys the support of a USD5.5-billion IMF facility. Although the government welcomes foreign investment, popular resource nationalism will probably prompt renegotiations of key mining concessions, in particular the Oyu Tolgoi mine. China isMongolia's largest trading partner, but Mongolia is diversifying to reduce its reliance.

Last update: May 23, 2018

Operational Outlook

The MPP government is focused on providing a stable tax and regulatory environment that facilitates foreign investment. Industrial action is tightly regulated and industrial unrest is rare. The regulatory environment can be cumbersome and corruption is perceived to be a problem, although the government has prioritised tackling these issues. Irregularities at foreign mining concessions are likely to receive heightened scrutiny under the administration of President Khaltmaagiin Battulga, who was elected to office on a platform of resource nationalism.

Last update: May 23, 2018



Mongolia has a number of small extreme nationalist groups that occasionally assault Chinese nationals, but these are not considered terrorist groups by state agencies. Otherwise, there are no domestic terrorist organisations in Mongolia, and significant terrorist attacks are very unlikely. Government buildings around Chinggis Kahan square in Ulaanbaatar are vulnerable to lone-actor attacks by disgruntled individuals. However, attacks on commercial assets outside Ulaanbaatar, including major mines, or infrastructure links with Russia and China, are very unlikely.

Last update: May 23, 2018

War Risks

Landlocked between Russia and China, Mongolia maintains good relations with both neighbours. Accordingly, the risk of interstate war with either country is low. In particular, the current Mongolian People's Party (MPP) government is working closely with the governments of China and Russia to better integrate Mongolia’s transportation network with those of its neighbours as part of a trilateral Economic Corridor plan. Mongolia has a small military that is increasingly oriented towards supporting global peacekeeping operations and US-led anti-terrorism operations. It conducts regular exercises with the US, Russia, China, and India.

Last update: May 23, 2018

Social Stability


Following his unanimous confirmation by parliament in October 2017, Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh received a strong mandate for enacting the necessary measures to improve the economy while pursuing a more socially oriented agenda. The lifting of many of the unpopular austerity measures introduced by the previous government will further reduce the already low risks of social unrest and political protests, which generally occur in Ulaanbaatar around elections. Protests concerning the natural resource sector occur periodically over perceived corruption and wealth inequality. But all are almost entirely peaceful and present little risk to individuals or property.

Last update: May 23, 2018

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Tick-Borne Encephalitis: If traveling to a rural area in the spring or of traveling to the north of the country in the summer.

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: November 28, 2013

Natural Risks

Very high

The western part of the country occasionally experiences seismic activity; several earthquakes with magnitudes of 8.0 or higher were recorded in the 20th century. The last major earthquake took place in December 1957 in Gobi-Altay.

Last update: February 13, 2018



Entry into the country by road requires advanced authorization from Mongolian authorities. Additionally, travelers entering the country by train are strongly encouraged to travel first class. Occasionally extreme meteorological conditions, particularly during winter months, can cause disruptions (delays and cancelations) to flights to, from, and within the country; furthermore, domestic carriers do not always adhere to international aviation security standards. According to recent reports, a number of travelers have had their luggage stolen – sometimes violently – by taxi drivers and thieves waiting at taxi stands. On a similar note, travelers are advised against using “shared taxis,” which are fairly unreliable. Road conditions in the country are frequently poor and far below European standards; snow storms in winter months can seriously hinder access to rural areas. Foreigners visiting the country in winter should also be conscious of the risk of hypothermia as temperatures can fall to -40°C (-40°F). Finally, it should be noted that after having exempted nationals from 42 countries from needing visas for visits of less than 30 days in 2014 and 2015, the Mongolian government reestablished this requirement effective January 1, 2016.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Practical Information


Mongolia's climate is dry and sunny but sudden changes in temperature can be extreme no matter the season.

Sandstorms can strike in the spring. Temperatures are mild in the north during the summer months and hot, even scorching, in the south (Gobi Desert). Rain is most common in the summer. Temperatures quickly become cold in the autumn with snow arriving as early as September. Winter is harsh (-30°C to -40°C) with little snow.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +976
Police: 102
Fire Dept.: 101
Ambulance: 103


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: January 7, 2014