Country Reports

Montenegro Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Montenegro will be one of the hardest hit countries in Europe by the COVID-19 crisis. Social distancing measures and travel restrictions are triggering extreme losses in Montenegro’s tourism sector, which accounted for approximately 21% of 2019 GDP. Even if restrictions are eased by summer, the number of arrivals will shrink dramatically over 2019 levels. In April, IHS Markit slashed the 2020 GDP forecast to -6.0%, after 3.6% growth in 2019. The Bar-Boljare highway project drove up public debt in recent years, leaving Montenegro with little room for a fiscal stimulus amid the COVID-19 shock. Opposition and civil society groups have staged anti-government protests since February 2019, demanding the resignation of top government and judicial officials, who they accuse of corruption. There is growing discontent in particular with President Milo Djukanović, who has been in power in one form or another almost uninterruptedly since 1989. Shootouts and improvised explosive device (IED) attacks by rival criminal groups in coastal towns pose elevated risks of property damage and injury to bystanders. The risk is particularly high in the touristic town of Kotor, where two of the most notorious organised crime groups, the Kavači and Škaljari, originate.
Last update: June 17, 2020

Operational Outlook

Corruption constitutes a major problem for businesses operating in Montenegro. Other impediments to business include an inefficient bureaucracy and labour shortages in various sectors. Instances of industrial action are relatively rare, but plans to privatise a number of state-owned enterprises are likely to trigger labour strikes and deterioration of relations between labour, business, and the government. The quality of the general infrastructure is adequate, but extensive upgrades are needed for Montenegro to compete with more developed European countries. Flooding and earthquakes occasionally occur, causing some material damage or affecting infrastructure.

Last update: December 13, 2019



A small Salafist minority is present in Montenegro, with a number of them having travelled to Syria and Iraq to fight for various Islamist military groups active there. However, these individuals have not indicated intent to carry out terrorist attacks on Montenegrin soil. An alleged coup attempt that was foiled by Montenegrin authorities in October 2016 highlights the growing risk posed by far-right terrorist groups sponsored by foreign intelligence services.

Last update: December 13, 2019


Montenegro lies on the Balkan trafficking route, along which passes large quantities of drugs, contraband, arms, and humans. The country serves mostly as a transit area. The Montenegrin border has long been poorly policed and as such remains a main crossing point for contraband.

Last update: December 13, 2019

War Risks

Montenegro's NATO membership and aspiration to join the EU, as well as improved bilateral relations and security co-operation with neighbouring countries, have significantly reduced the risk of interstate war. Although there is a level of discontent and sense of exclusion from power by ethnic minorities, this is unlikely to escalate into armed violence.

Last update: December 13, 2019

Social Stability


High levels of corruption and economic stagnation increase the risk of economically and socially motivated protests across the country. These issues are likely to be used by the opposition to galvanise supporters and organise anti-government protests.

Last update: December 13, 2019

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

Montenegro is located in an active seismic zone.

Flooding is not rare in winter months during periods of melting snow.

Numerous wildfires have been reported in recent years during the summer.

Last update: April 5, 2019



The bus network is dense and covers the whole country. The railway network is usually crowded, especially in the intercity trains, and includes a cross-country route from the Adriatic Sea to Serbia via the capital: Bar - Podgorica - Kolasi - Bijelo Polje - Belgrade. It should nonetheless be noted that public transportation is generally uncomfortable, outdated, and overcrowded.

Despite the absence of highways the road network is relatively well developed with major arterials, although traffic jams are not rare, especially during the summer. The secondary and semi-urban roads can be in poor condition (with livestock present, lack of road construction signals, etc.). Mountain roads can be twisting and dangerous (damaged guard railing, collapsed shoulders, etc.). It is advised to be vigilant while driving following intense rain or snow. The canyon roads in Moraca, linking Niksic to Zabljak, and mountain roads are to be avoided in case of bad weather. Winter tires are mandatory from November 15 to March 23. It is worth noting that Montenegrin drivers can be aggressive.

An Eco tax is mandatory for all foreign vehicles entering in the country, with price varying depending on the vehicle model. The payment of this tax is validated by stickers which must be placed in the corner of the windshield.

Taxis are numerous and inexpensive. Ask for a fare estimate before departure and confirm the price prior to payment, especially if the fare differs from the meter. Travelers should refuse taxi services proposed by random individuals.

Ferries are available, linking Bar to Bari in Italy.

Traveler should note that there are two international airports in Montenegro: Podgorica (TGD) and Tivat (TIV).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


The climate is continental in the interior of the country, mountainous along the reliefs, and Mediterranean along the coast. In the center of the country, summers and autumns are hot and dry and winters are cold, even harsh, with frequent snow. Summers in coastal regions are hot and dry while winters are mild and humid. In the summer temperatures are cooler in mountainous regions.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +382
Police: 122
Fire Dept.: 123
Ambulance: 124


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019