Country Reports

Mozambique Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Mozambique's governing party faces a strong challenge from the opposition RENAMO in the general election scheduled for 15 October 2019. RENAMO is likely to narrow the ruling FRELIMO party's parliamentary majority in the polls. Although unlikely, failure by FRELIMO to win an outright majority is likely to bring a period of policy uncertainty in the country, despite the signing of a peace agreement between RENAMO and FRELIMO on 1 August 2019.Several court challenges to the registration process for the upcoming elections have been mounted by civil society groups and RENAMO. This follows allegations of skewed registration in provinces including Gaza and Zambezia, which favours FRELIMO and is very likely to result in it winning more seats in the legislature after the polls. Court challenges have thus far been unsuccessful and, while more are likely to ensue, they are unlikely to succeed.Despite multiple challenges including a 'hidden debts' scandal and disagreements with RENAMO over decentralisation of state power, the signed peace agreement further lowers the risk of a return to fighting between RENAMO and government forces. It is likely, though, that decentralisation, particularly of financial authority to provincial and municipal governments, will remain a challenge in the one-year outlook. Progress on the country's LNG projects continues, despite the involvement of US firm Anadarko Petroleum in a hijacking incident in the province of Cabo Delgado in March 2019 where one staff member was killed. Anadarko is still expected to make a final investment decision (FID) in the first half of 2019. IHS Markit assumes a favourable macroeconomic environment in the Mozambican economy during 2019: GDP growth is expected to average 3.7% and low headline inflation is expected to allow for further monetary easing. This is despite uncertainty over the full extent of illegally acquired debt, which the government has not made clear whether it will pay back.
Last update: August 9, 2019

Operational Outlook

Mozambique's government has earmarked four priority areas for investment as part of its long-term development strategy: agriculture, energy, mineral resources especially liquefied natural gas (LNG), and tourism. Regulations covering employees in the mining, LNG, and oil production sectors are likely to be relaxed to encourage FDI in a low oil-price environment. Undefined employment quotas for local Mozambicans increase the risk of requirements to hire additional local employees. Cyclone Idai has inflicted significant damage to the port city of Beira and this is likely to take more than 12 months to restore to full capacity.

Last update: April 27, 2019



Suspected jihadist attacks on villages in Mozambique's Cabo Delgado are likely to continue in the 12-month outlook as militants seek to achieve notoriety and boost recruitment to their ranks. Police counter-terrorism operations, such as the one following the May 2018 Pemba attacks, are likely to increase, especially as RENAMO attacks decline. The militants are unlikely to have the intent or capability to directly attack oil and gas exploration onshore and support logistics for offshore gas activity in Cabo Delgado. The government has provided security for oil and gas companies operating in the north.

Last update: July 2, 2019


Higher urban crime rates are fuelled by easy access to weapons and the growth in drug-smuggling. Street crime and pickpocketing are likely to be a particular problem in Maputo and other major cities, as well as occasional incidents of armed robbery. In Maputo and Matola, kidnappings have intensified since 2013. In September 2016, police warned of car theft at gunpoint in Maputo, with two motorists killed during such incidents that month. The danger of crime, including robberies and hijackings, is heightened closer to the border with neighbouring South Africa, while incidents of carjacking have occurred near the border crossing with Swaziland.

Last update: April 27, 2019

War Risks

Inter-state war between Mozambique and its neighbours is unlikely. An indefinite truce announced by RENAMO in August 2017 and the peaceful local elections in October 2018 with RENAMO participation, after numerous truce extensions – and the election of Ossufo Momade as RENAMO leader – has lowered violence risks in the short term. However, the potential for a stalemate in protracted peace talks, particularly over decentralisation, would raise the threat of fresh attacks in central and northern Mozambique, including on transport infrastructure. The current disagreement between RENAMO and the government dates back to the 2014 general election, with RENAMO claiming that it won an electoral majority, particularly in its central strongholds.

Last update: April 27, 2019

Social Stability

Very high

Sporadic protests are likely against the rising cost of living and reduction in state subsidies. Protests are likely to occur in response to likely attempts by government to cover up the ongoing 'hidden loans' scandal, which implicates senior FRELIMO figures including former president Armando Guebuza. Guebuza's son Ndambi Guebuza was arrested in January 2019 in relation to the matter and remains in police custody. Both Armando and Ndambi Guebuza have denied allegations of wrongdoing. Protests against government corruption related to the bond scandal are likely in Beira, Maputo, Matola, and Nampula, but there is a risk of such unrest spreading to other major cities. These protests are unlikely to be violent.

Last update: July 2, 2019

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over one year of age.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks


Mozambique is exposed to a number of natural hazards. The rainy season lasts from November through April, often causing flash floods and landslides, notably in the Zambezi River valley. Beginning in 2015, the northern and central parts of the country experienced severe flooding, including in the Zambezi and Licungo basins, causing dozens of deaths and displacing millions of people.

Cyclones may hit the coastal region. In January 2012, Cyclone Funso caused a dozen deaths and thousands were left homeless. Similarly, in February 2017 the southern province of Inhambane was hit by a violent cyclone, Dineo, which caused severe damage to infrastructure and displaced hundreds of people. 

A high risk of drowning exists along the entire coast of Mozambique due to strong winds and powerful currents. Swimmers are advised to remain close to shore; beaches are not monitored in Mozambique. Shark attacks are rare but possible.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Road accidents are common in Mozambique due to aggressive and potentially dangerous local driving habits (excessive speed, driving while intoxicated, etc.). In case of an accident, it is advised to immediately travel to the closest police station in order to avoid a hostile reaction, and potential violence.

In Maputo and other major cities, the risk of assault, theft, and carjacking exists. It is advised to hide your personal belongings in a safe location and drive with locked doors and closed windows. It is advised not to park in isolated or dimly lit areas. Outside Maputo, remain particularly vigilant when traveling between Boane and Swaziland as cases of carjacking have been reported, notably at the border crossing between Namaacha and Goba. It is recommended not to pick up foreign nationals or to stop on the roadside if there are pedestrians or drivers in distress on the motorways; these are techniques often used by criminals. It is also advisable to remain vigilant when driving along the coast, as violent criminal activities have been reported in coastal areas. Finally, drivers taking the EN7 between Vanduzi and Tete should be extremely careful as there are reports of robbery, extortion, and physical assault taking place along the route. It is advised to monitor the situation and consider postponing any travel if warnings point to tensions in the destination zone.

Traveling can be dangerous outside major urban centers due to the absence of signage as well as poorly maintained roads, especially during the rainy season that lasts from November through April. Furthermore, night driving should be strictly avoided due to poor street lighting and infrastructure disrepair. It is recommended to only travel during the day. Gas stations throughout the country are often located far apart from each other. National Road 1 (north-south) is the country's main motorway and is in decent condition. National Road 6 between Beira and the border with Zimbabwe is poorly maintained between Beira and Inchope (where it crosses National 1). The roads to and from South Africa are in good condition but should be crossed using 4x4 vehicles.

Police frequently monitor vehicle speed using radars. Drivers should respect speed limits, typically 60 km/h (37 mph) in urban centers and 120 km/h (75 mph) on national roads, although speeds are limited in some sections to 100 km/h (60 mph). Police officers often seek bribes from tourists; it is advised not to agree to their demands. Request a reason justifying the arrest and pay a fine at the police station, if necessary.

Day driving using a 4x4 vehicle with a convoy of at least two vehicles, stocked with sufficient water, food, and gas provisions, is recommended. Also, it is advised to travel with spare parts (tires, cables, etc.) and arrange for means of telecommunication. Always travel with identification and car insurance documents as police patrols and checkpoints are common. However, prior to handing over your ID documents, make sure that the person is an official civil servant.

As a reminder, cars drive on the left side of the road in Mozambique. Additionally, a valid international driver's license is required. For those individuals planning to stay in the country for a relatively long period of time, a Mozambican driving license is compulsory. Car insurance is also required but can be bought at customs. It is necessary to travel with two reflective warning triangles as well as reflective gear in case the vehicle breaks down or is parked on the side of the road.

Although mine-clearing operations have been completed, it is advised to remain vigilant during any travel to the remote border regions of Mozambique.

Public transportation is not reliable due to worn out vehicle conditions and faulty roads.

A rail service exists in the country, notably between Maputo and Johannesburg. Nonetheless, security is weak and there are frequent accidents. It is advised to avoid public transportation.

Individuals should avoid sailing along the Mozambican coast due to the risk of piracy.

It is recommended to avoid taking Mozambican airlines - except for LAM - as they are all on the EU's blacklist.

Last update: April 5, 2019


Local internet service is slow and expensive throughout the country, including in Maputo.

Despite heavy rains recorded in the south of the country in late 2016 into early 2017, the Pequenos Libombos reservoir, the main source of water for the Umbeluzi water pumping station that supplies the capital city Maputo and its surroundings, remains low. On January 5, 2017, only 14 percent of the reservoir was full, forcing the authorities to restrict the water supply in the area for a couple of weeks.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Mozambique has a tropical climate. The rainy season lasts from November until March with temperatures fluctuating between 26°C and 31°C, higher in the north of the country. Rainfall is heavier in the northern and central regions (high plateau, inland) than in the south. The dry season extends from April until October and conditions during this period are significantly cooler (15°C to 20°C). Mozambican skies are often sunny and blue.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +258

There are no emergency services in Mozambique.


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019