Country Reports

Namibia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The ruling South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO) is very likely to win the upcoming November 2019 Presidential and National Assembly elections. In the 2014 elections SWAPO won 80% of the national assembly vote, and its candidate for president, Hage Geingob, won 87% of the vote. Geingob will stand again for president and appears very likely to win comfortably.As in its neighbour South Africa, Namibia’s ruling party decided in 2018 to pursue a policy of land expropriation. However, in Namibia this will not be arbitrary and will proceed offering fair compensation. SWAPO is very likely to begin implementing land expropriations by late 2019, focusing on land owned by foreign absentee landlords. Greatest expropriation risks apply to land that is underutilised or deemed to be lying fallow. The Namibian economy is driven by exports of diamonds which constitute 25% of all exports, as well as other minerals including uranium and lead. Namibia continues to be heavily dependent on its biggest trading partner South Africa, with which it does a little more than 21% of its trade. We forecast South Africa’s economic growth to remain at 1.4% for 2019, with Namibia forecast to achieve 1.3% growth following a contraction of 0.2% in 2018. This is driven largely by proceeds from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). A moderate retraction in diamond mining output owing to the depletion of a Namdeb operation in 2019 means the sector is unlikely to make a significant contribution to overall growth performance.
Last update: April 25, 2019

Operational Outlook

Namibia promotes foreign investment but is increasing focus on local participation, particularly in the extractive sector. A proposed New Equitable Economic Empowerment Framework – which proposes 25% of company shares be held by previously disadvantaged Namibians – has drawn calls for further consultation, highlighting possible revisions and policy uncertainty. However, Namibia's preferred approach would hope to remedy economic inequality without radical economic transformation or expropriation without compensation. Still, the government is facing pressure to speed up land reform, citing lacklustre performance in meeting 2022 goals of transferring 43% of national arable land to disadvantaged citizens.

Last update: May 22, 2018



A number of disaffected locals live in the Caprivi Strip and some support for an independent region (renamed from Caprivi to Zambezi) remains, but a return to armed conflict is unlikely given government efforts to increase spending in the region and the presence of the security forces. The Caprivi Liberation Army (CLA) secessionist group has been inactive since an August 1999 attack on the town of Katima Mulilo, although the insecurity became the subject of a long-running trial.

Last update: May 22, 2018

War Risks

Namibia has had a number of territorial disputes, such as with Botswana (boundary and island disputes) and South Africa (Orange River border demarcation), but war with its neighbours is unlikely. Some secessionist sentiment may remain for an independent Caprivi in northeastern Namibia, which has been renamed the Zambezi region, but the Caprivi Liberation Army (CLA) is considered dormant. Troops are unlikely to be deployed to quell internal protests.

Last update: May 22, 2018

Social Stability


Political violence or intimidation is an occasional problem in Namibia, such as in the run-up to elections. However, generally such risks are minimal and outbreaks of violence are localised. Serious inter-ethnic and social unrest in Namibia is also rare; economic differentials and varying levels of political power point to potential future risk. Grievances over land and housing shortages and the slow pace of reform have increased protest and land grab/occupation risks, including of vacant municipal land in urban centres, which can be organised by local groups or national movements. Such incidents also raise risks of confrontations with the police.

Last update: May 22, 2018

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for all individuals traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever (YFV) transmission. The countries or parts of countries included in the endemic zones in Africa and South America are regarded as areas with risk of YFV transmission. Travelers on scheduled flights that originated outside the countries with risk of YFV transmission, but who have been in transit through these areas, are not required to possess a certificate provided that they remained at the airport or in the adjacent town during transit. All travelers whose flights originated in countries with risk of YFV transmission or who have been in transit through these countries on unscheduled flights are required to possess a certificate. The certificate is not required for children under one year of age, but such infants may be subject to surveillance.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Namibia's climate is subtropical in the north of the country and arid in the south. Summers in the Namib Desert are dry and often very hot during the day (40°C) and significantly colder at night (0°). In the winter, the desert is warmed by hot and dry easterly winds. In the central plateau region, low levels of humidity and warm winds contribute to pleasant conditions. During the summer months, temperatures are higher (30°C in January), as are levels of humidity. The coastal regions have a more temperate climate. The rainy season lasts from October until April, with rainfall heavier in the north.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +264
Emergency Services: 1 01 11
in Windhoek 
Fire Dept., Ambulance: (061) 270 21 43 or (061) 270 20 06


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019