Norway Country Report
Norway's business environment is sound, driven by a stable, consensus-oriented political culture and strong economic fundamentals. Governments change peacefully and stability is high. The current right-wing government is in a minority and must compromise with its centrist allies to pass policy, which poses moderate policy and government instability risks. As an oil exporter, Norway is exposed to risks associated with fluctuating oil prices, but the presence of a substantial sovereign wealth fund means that the detrimental effect on government finances is mitigated. Terrorism risks are similar to other West European countries, with the primary risk being low-capability jihadist attacks by self-radicalised individuals or small groups.
Norway welcomes foreign investment, especially in the northern regions, the petroleum sector, and mainland industry. Some sectors have restrictions for activities and ownership, including maritime transport, fishing, and agriculture. Although unit labour costs are relatively high compared with OECD peers, the workforce is highly skilled and educated. Unionisation levels are high, but strikes primarily occur in connection with regular, biannual collective wage negotiations, and are well regulated. Moreover, the government retains the right to force a settlement if a dispute threatens national security or the economy. This right is most likely to be executed in the oil and gas sector.
Norway's participation in the NATO operation in Afghanistan and three Norwegian newspapers' publication of the Prophet Muhammad cartoons in 2005–06 has made Norway a symbolical target for jihadist militants. The primary risk stems from firearm attacks by self-radicalised individuals, including dozens of potential returnees who have fought with jihadists in Syria and Iraq, against soft targets similar to those seen in Belgium, Denmark, and France in 2014–15. Terrorist attacks by far-right extremists are unlikely, despite the July 2011 IED and firearm attacks by an individual attacker against a government building and a Labour Party youth camp.
Norway is unlikely to become involved in an interstate conflict affecting its territory. Its membership in NATO and shared border with Russia in the north will make it vulnerable in the unlikely event of a NATO-Russia conflict, but this is unlikely to occur despite the deterioration of relations between the West and Russia.
Protests against dismissals caused by falling commodity prices or the government's labour market policies are likely to be peaceful. Environmentalist groups are active and most likely to target the oil and gas sector, whaling industry, and hydropower development. These protests will primarily occur through peaceful information campaigns, demonstrations, and marches rather than civil disobedience or violent protests. There is a low risk of property damage during demonstrations by left-wing and anarchist groups in Oslo.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
It is advised to monitor weather channels during travel to Norway as weather can change very rapidly, especially in northern areas. It is possible to experience arctic weather in the middle of summer.
Flooding is common in Norway, especially during spring; landslides often accompany the floods.
North of the Arctic Circle, the sun does not rise at all from mid-November to the end of January. Snowstorms or blizzards are common during winter time and can lead to electricity outages and transportation disruptions.
Hikers should be conscious of the dangers inherent to mountainous and polar regions. All hikers should be well-equipped and properly trained before any excursion. It is advisable to hire a professional guide if hiking on glaciers. It is advised against going alone. In case of a trip to Svalbard, and archipelagos between Norway and the Northern Pole, it is crucial to prepare meticulously for the trip by reading up on current laws and following local authorities' advice regarding polar bears attacks and avalanches.
The Norwegian motorway network is in good condition. Due to geographical and climatic constraints, the road network is more developed in the South than in the North.
Weather conditions can disrupt travel. Some roads can be closed during the winter due hazardous conditions; mountain roads, particularly those that are narrow and winding, are very dangerous. Vehicles are required to be fitted with snow tires from November 1 until April 15.
Trains mostly serve major cities and can be slow in some areas. When train services are disrupted, rail replacement bus services are provided.
Sea and air transportation - more than 50 airports are spread across the country- is very well developed in Norway. Since 2015, identity controls have been reinstated at harbors for departures and arrivals to and from Denmark and Germany. Similar controls could be established with the Swedish land border.
Norway's climate is characterized by considerable fluctuations in weather patterns from one year to another, particularly in the country's most northerly regions. The average annual temperature ranges from 8°C along the western coast to below freezing in mountainous areas. The two coldest months are January and February. Precipitation is relatively constant throughout the year, with snow common in the winter, particularly in inland regions.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz