Country Reports

Oman Country Report

Content provided by
IHS Markit Logo

Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Oman's absolute monarch, Sultan Qaboos, passed away on 10 January. He was succeeded by his cousin Haitham bin Tariq, whose name was designated by Qaboos in a sealed letter. Sultan Haitham is unlikely to face an open challenge from within the royal family, given the army's loyalty to the sultan rather than royal family members. Continuity is likely for Oman's policy of balancing relations with the United States, Iran, and other Gulf countries. Qaboos likely picked Haitham for his extensive foreign policy experience.Widespread frustration over corruption, mismanagement, and unemployment – which is around 49% for youth – is likely to fuel small-scale protests, with a higher likelihood of open criticism of Haitham than there was of Qaboos. Frustration is likely to rise as the government seeks to restrain a sharply rising budget deficit resulting from the COVID-19 virus outbreak and parallel oil-price collapse. The USD18-billion Oman Investment Fund was established in June 2020, in part to rationalise inward investment in Oman.IHS Markit projects that the fiscal deficit will nearly triple in 2020 to 23% of GDP (USD13.98 billion), while real GDP will likely contract by 1.5%. This assumes an average Brent crude oil price of USD28 per barrel and an announced expenditure reduction of 10% relative to the original 2020 budget. Oman's break-even Brent crude price is about USD95 per barrel.There is an increased risk of closures in the Strait of Hormuz in the context of the Iran-US standoff, such as through naval mines deployed by Iran. An Iran-US war would entail high risks of Iranian missile strikes on Omani airbases and facilities assessed by Iran as being used by US forces. There is little precedent for terrorist presence or activity in Oman. Robust intelligence and surveillance along the Omani-Yemeni border will continue to insulate the country from spillovers from Yemen's civil war.
Last update: August 7, 2020

Operational Outlook

The collapse of oil prices is likely to disrupt government spending on transport and logistics infrastructure, with about 80% of government revenues still coming from hydrocarbons, although this situation is likely to improve in the aftermath of the OPEC+ agreement and as demand recovers as COVID-19-virus restrictions ease. Foreign investors have to contend with an emphasis on local-content requirements, including a foreign worker visa ban that is set to expire in January 2021. Bribery is prevalent in the public sector, including facilitation payments and petty bribery in front-line services.

Last update: September 3, 2020



Private and commercial shipping are at growing risk from Somali pirates in the Arabian Sea off the Omani coast and near the Gulf of Aden. The risk decreases to moderate the closer the ships are to the Omani coastline given the presence of a small but effective coast guard. Despite relatively robust security measures along the Omani-Yemeni border, the conflict in Yemen, where jihadists enjoy unprecedented freedom of movement, entails a moderate risk of successful infiltration by militants capable of transferring IED capability to Oman; nevertheless, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are likely to remain much higher priorities for jihadists.

Last update: August 25, 2020


Petty crime levels in Oman are on the rise, although they remain low by regional standards and are normally limited to small-scale incidents. Crime levels usually do not affect tourists, provided normal precautions are taken. Easily accessible items such as cash, jewellery, and electronics are particularly vulnerable to theft and should not be left in hotel rooms. Vehicle theft is prevalent, particularly when drivers go into a store and leave their keys in their cars. Muscat experienced an increasing frequency of residential burglaries in recent years.

Last update: August 25, 2020

War Risks

Oman's key challenge is balancing its relationship with its Western allies, Iran, and other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states. Oman's mediatory capacity between Iran and the United States, alongside its refusal to participate in the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen, reduces the risk of direct military retaliation against Oman in the event of conflict involving the US, Iran, and/or the Gulf states, or in the event of unintended escalation following minor naval incidents between the US or other Gulf states and Iran in the Sea of Oman or near the Strait of Hormuz.

Last update: September 3, 2020

Social Stability


Strikes and collective bargaining are becoming more common in companies that employ a large proportion of Omanis. Strikes can last for weeks if no settlement is reached.

Last update: August 25, 2020

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers over 9 months of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for travellers having transited more than 12hours through an airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

The rainy season lasts from May until September in the extreme south of the country and is often accompanied by floods.

In late 2015, the country experienced repeated flooding, worsened by poor drainage systems in urban areas.

Cyclones infrequently strike the sultanate, mainly in the months of June and September as the monsoon arrives and recedes. Tropical Cyclone Ashobaa struck Oman in June 2015 resulting in heavy flooding and significant property damage.

During the summer, extreme temperatures (higher than 50°C [120°F]) and humidity can be dangerous to health.

Sand and dust storms can impact air and ground traffic.

Last update: April 5, 2019



The road network is well developed. Authorities strictly enforce traffic laws; running a red light results in automatic arrest and detention for 48 hours as well as the suspension of the offender's driving license until a judge's decision. 

(Unmetered) taxis are available all over the country. In general, it is advised to discuss the price before departure.

Driving outside Muscat can be hazardous due to the presence of free-roaming animals.

The Oman National Transportation Company reliably operates bus routes between major cities.

Last update: April 5, 2019


The mobile network is good but means of telecommunications are expensive. Oman's authorities may cut the mobile network for security reasons. Intelligence services monitor all calls and many communications tools such as Skype or Facetime can be blocked by the government.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


The sultanate of Oman has a Mediterranean climate (hot and dry summers, mild winters) in the north and the east, tropical in the south and west, and arid in the center. Summers last from March to October and winters from November to February. Temperatures are the highest between October and April (around 30°C). In the tropical zone, remnants of the monsoon bring rain from June until September. Humidity levels are high throughout the country (despite low annual rainfall), except in the desert regions where temperatures are relatively steady throughout the day and the night, contrary to usual desert conditions.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +968
Emergency Services: 999


Voltage: 240 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019