Country Reports

Pakistan Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI)-led government's policies under the July 2019 International Monetary Fund (IMF) programme will focus on overcoming Pakistan's immediate balance-of-payments crisis and reducing the country's dependence on external borrowing in the longer term. The government's first policy announcements – including the FY2020 budget – include measures to raise tax revenue, cut public spending and infrastructure investment, as well as higher import tariffs. The government's fiscal austerity programme, combined with further monetary policy tightening and scaled-back infrastructure investment within and outside the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, will likely lead to a slowdown in growth from 5.4% in FY 2018 to a projected 3.5% in FY 2019 (ending June 2019) and 3.4% in FY 2020. Moreover, strict IMF conditions involving unpopular fiscal and structural reforms are likely to undermine the popularity of the PTI-led government and trigger broad social unrest.There is a very high likelihood of Pakistan-India skirmishes, including artillery exchanges and Indian airstrikes, in the Kashmir region during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's second term. Any escalation would likely remain contained to Kashmir and both sides would probably seek to target military assets (in the case of India, separatist militants) in Kashmir, as opposed to critical infrastructure, before seeking de-escalation.Non-state armed group activity has declined markedly since 2014 and there have been no major attacks on commercial assets or airports since 2015. However, suicide bombings targeting security forces and religious minorities in urban areas, including Lahore and Karachi, by Islamist militants are likely. Meanwhile, Baloch separatist militants are likely to target Chinese nationals using increasingly ambitious tactics, including suicide bombings.
Last update: March 3, 2020

Operational Outlook

The PTI-led government encourages foreign direct investment, and has signalled intent to improve the country's operating environment. Details have not yet been released, but any plan would have to tackle Pakistan's governance issues, corruption, and excessive regulation. The emphasis on CPEC is likely to shift towards developmental, industrial, and transport sectors as the initiative's focus shifts towards improving exports and actualising CPEC's primary objective of developing trade and connectivity between China, Pakistan, and the broader region. Strikes are particularly likely in the transportation and power transmission sectors, and pose risks of collateral damage to property.

Last update: February 26, 2020


Non-state armed group attacks decreased by 13% across the country during 2019, marking a fourth consecutive year of declining attacks. The data underline that Islamist militant groups continue to struggle to reorganise following military operations against their strongholds in 2014, reducing the frequency and capability of their attacks. We expect the terrorism risk to airports, ports, hotels, infrastructure, and government installations to reduce further over the coming year, although there is an increasing risk of separatists staging suicide assaults or improvised explosive device attacks against restaurants and hotels frequented by Chinese nationals in Balochistan and Sindh.

Last update: February 4, 2020


According to Pakistani police data, incidents of homicides have decreased annually since 2014, when 13,276 people were killed. In 2018, 8,241 murders were recorded, constituting a murder rate of 4 per 100,000 inhabitants nationwide. Nevertheless, broader crime remains prevalent throughout the country; mugging, carjacking, mobile-phone snatching, and kidnapping of industrialists and business owners is a particular problem, particularly in Karachi, the country's financial hub. Militant groups also often resort to crime, including bank robberies and extortion, to fund their activities. However, foreigners are not at greater risk of being targeted than locals.

Last update: February 4, 2020

War Risks

There is a very high likelihood of skirmishes, including artillery exchanges and Indian airstrikes, in the Kashmir region during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's second term, particularly to consolidate his domestic position amid growing protests against his government. Another major Kashmiri separatist attack, for example, would build domestic pressure on Modi to respond aggressively against Pakistan. Any escalation would likely remain contained to Kashmir and both sides would probably seek to target military assets (in the case of India, separatist militants) in Kashmir, as opposed to critical infrastructure, before seeking de-escalation.

Last update: February 26, 2020

Social Stability

Opposition parties are likely to organise regular protests against the government over anti-corruption investigations against senior opposition figures. However, these are unlikely to cause major disruption or result in violence. More violent unrest is likely to be driven by Islamist groups campaigning in support of blasphemy laws, resulting in intermittent periods of violent protests and road blockades across all major cities. Security forces will probably use tear gas, water cannon, and baton charges if protesters break police cordons or threaten high-security areas. Although there are civil society campaigns against some commercial projects, these rarely turn violent or derail projects politically.

Last update: January 22, 2020

Health Risk

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for travelers over nine months of age arriving from a country with risk of yellow fever (YFV) transmission and for travelers who have been in transit for >12 hours in an airport located in a country with risk of YFV transmission.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Japanese Encephalitis: For stays of longer than one month in a rural zone during the rainy season (for children over the age of one). The vaccine is administered in a local medical facility.

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Pakistan is particularly vulnerable to natural disasters. A massive earthquake took place in October 2005 in Azad Kashmir, resulting in 80,000 deaths.

The country regularly experiences flooding, which is often deadly. In June 2017, severe flooding killed 164 people and injured 200 more. Unprecedented flooding that occurred in August 2010 after an unusually heavy monsoon season left 3 million people homeless and impacted 17 million people overall.

The Pakistani state's capacity to deal with the challenges presented by natural disasters is often insufficient.

Last update: April 5, 2019


Due to locals' dangerous driving habits, often substandard highways, and a general disregard for rules of the road - in addition to the added risk of an armed attack - the use of public transportation (buses as well as trains) is ill-advised. Travelers should be extremely cautious while driving on highways outside of cities.

Driving becomes particularly hazardous during the winter months, as the sudden increase in the demand of electricity prompted by falling temperatures results in heavy smog and poor visibility on the roads, especially in the densely populated urban areas of Sindh, Punjab, and Baluchistan provinces. No less than 50 smog-related traffic accidents were reported in the Lahore region in a three-day period of severe air pollution in early November 2017.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Pakistan has a continental climate; weather conditions can vary greatly from region to region as well from season to season and from day to day. Generally speaking there are three main seasons: a cool to cold winter (October to February), a hot summer (March to June), and a hot, humid, and rainy monsoon season (July to September). Temperatures tend to be higher in the south, cooling progressively as you travel north.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +92
Police, Fire Dept., Ambulance: 171


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019