Paraguay Country Report
The business environment is undermined by weak political and legal institutions as well as endemic corruption. This is compounded by inadequate infrastructure, particularly telecommunications, and highway connectivity which remain one of the least efficient in the region as well air transportation. Paraguay ranked overall 95 out of 140 countries for in the 2018 Global Competitiveness Report released by the World Economic Forum. Its best score was on market liberalisation and macroeconomic stability, where it was ranked 68 and 74 respectively. However, on institutional strength and infrastructure it fared poorly at 112 and 101 respectively.
The small guerrilla group Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo (EPP) poses the main terrorist threat; it operate in the northeastern departments of Concepción and San Pedro. The EPP, sporadically attacks security forces and landowners; with cattle ranching and soybean producers facing arson attacks and kidnapping. The former Cartes government's promised to dislodge the EPP but without much success; such task will fall to the newly elect government of Mario Abdo Benítez. The number of police and civilians killed by the EPP under former President Cartes exceeded that of his predecessors. The EPP threat is likely to remain highly localised, posing limited threat to major business assets.
Paraguay's growing economic integration with Brazil and Argentina, together with its membership of the Mercosur economic bloc, has helped the country to foster good relations with its neighbours. Despite some sources of potential friction with Brazil over smuggling (drugs, weapons, and contraband), these are highly unlikely to lead to military confrontation. Brazil has instead deepened its intelligence co-operation with Paraguay to tackle the significant involvement of Brazilian gangs in drug trafficking along their common border. Internally Paraguay is trying to contain the expansion of Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo guerrillas, a small rebel outfit whose operations are localised to two northern provinces.
Demands for land reform constitute the main source of unrest in Paraguay. Successive governments' failure to implement land reform has been at the centre of the most disruptive protests in recent years. The umbrella National Peasants' Confederation (Federación Nacional Campesina: FNC) has been the leading force, vowing to escalate land takeovers to press for the acceleration of settlements. The departments with the largest number of land occupations are Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Guairá, and Itapúa. More recently, social movements have launched protests against the high levels of corruption in the country.
Vaccines required to enter the country
Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travelers arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease; it should be taken ten days in advance to be fully effective.
Vaccines recommended for all travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines recommended for most travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).
Vaccines recommended for some travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is generally recommended for travelers visiting areas outside the capital Asunción.
Flooding is relatively common in the country, especially along its main river (the Paraguay River) and in the capital region, in large part due to inefficient drainage systems. Flooding in Asunción in late 2015/early 2016 forced tens of thousands of people to flee their homes.
Ground transportation is often hazardous due to the poor quality of roads and highways and the often-risky driving habits of locals. Many streets flood and/or become impassable during the rainy season (November-April). It is best to avoid driving on tertiary roads at night.
Foreign visitors should also be aware that tourist infrastructure (hotels, restaurants), while decent in the capital, may be significantly less developed - even nonexistent - in other areas.
The country's electrical infrastructure is outdated and in need of upgrading. As such, power outages are relatively common, including in the capital, particularly on hot summer days when increased use of air conditioner units puts a major strain on the electrical network.
Paraguay's climate is hot and humid. Summers (January to March) are very hot (with temperatures reaching 40°C and sometimes even 50°C); winter temperatures, much more pleasant, can fluctuate wildly (between 5°C and 25°C in a single day). Humidity levels are high throughout the year, unpleasant in the winter as well as in the summer. The rainy season, which extends from October until April, often sees torrential rains and floods. Autumn and spring are pleasant.
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz