Peru Country Report
Peru's economy will continue to grow in 2018on the back of its extractive industries and foreign direct investment. President Martín Vizcarra's pro-business government faces strong opposition in Congress, which is likely to weaken policy implementation and strongly scrutinise infrastructure projects. Relations are likely to deteriorate further between Vizcarra and Keiko Fujimori, the head of Popular Force (FP), the largest opposition party, following her arrest on 10 October over money-laundering allegations. Extractive industries face risks of project suspension and delays owing to violent protests from local communities, including roadblocks and minor property damage. Security forces have had some success in weakening Sendero Luminoso (SL) insurgents in the VRAEM, an areaknown for coca production, where SL is likely to remain active in the one-year outlook.
President Martín Vizcarra is likely to continue improving Peru's business-friendly operational environment. The private sector is highly influential in terms of policymaking. Since the 1990s, successive Peruvian governments have welcomed foreign direct investment as a primary component for economic and social development. Port, airport, sanitation, and road infrastructure upgrades are a government priority. Infrastructure remains poor in remote regions far from the capital Lima and coastal areas. Levels of corruption and bureaucracy are still high. Unlike local community opposition against extractive industries, frequent labour strikes tend to be non-violent and less disruptive.
The Sendero Luminoso (SL) insurgent group has declined in strength and scope since its peak in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and no longer poses a security threat beyond the remote coca-growing areas where it operates. SL's area of activity is in the central-southern Valley of the Apurímac, Ene, and Mantaro rivers (VRAEM), where it co-operates closely with drug-trafficking groups. SL's presence in this region gives rise to ongoing risks of extortion, sabotage, property damage, and kidnapping for firms operating in or around VRAEM. Natural gas, construction firms, and military helicopters face a higher risk of attack within VRAEM..
Peru is one of the less dangerous countries in Latin America. Street crime is highest in central areas of the capital, Lima, and in coastal urban areas. Violent crime, such as armed robbery, assault, extortion, and carjacking, is likely to increase, particularly in northern coastal areas, mainly around ports, including the cities of Chimbote, Piura, and Trujillo.
Any risk of war is likely to remain low and further recede after a favourable International Court of Justice ruling in 2014 over a maritime border dispute with Chile. Both countries have pledged to adhere to it and are likely to continue strengthening relations under the Pacific Alliance regional integration group. The country last fought a war in 1995 against Ecuador but in 1998 signed a peace treaty and relations driven by trade will continue improving. President Martín Vizcarra is likely to continue good relations with Peru's neighbours and further regional economic integration.
Mining and oil and gas projects face violent protest and minor property damage risks in the one-year outlook. Social conflicts over access to natural resources are concentrated in the regions of Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Junín, Piura, Puno, and Tacna. Well over half of these conflicts relate to concerns over mining and hydrocarbons projects, and these sectors will continue to provoke protests over the next 12 months. Many reflect conflicting claims to water sources.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Yellow Fever: Vaccination is recommended for travelers to the Amazon region, the jungle, or regions to the east of the Andes Mountains. Vaccination is not necessary for tourists traveling to the city of Cusco or Machu Picchu. A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - chloroquine (sometimes marketed as Nivaquine); mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin) for travel to the Amazon region.
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Peru is prone to natural disasters, particularly due to its location within an active seismic zone. In August 2007, a violent earthquake (magnitude-8.0) hit the coastal areas to the south of Lima (affecting the towns of Pisco, Chincha Alta, Nazca, Ica, and San Vicente de Cañete), leaving more than 500 dead and causing substantial damage to roads and tourist facilities in its wake. The country is also home to a number of active volcanoes, including Mount Ubinas, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) from Arequipa, Peru's second-largest city.
The rainy season typically lasts from November through April (from January to May in the Cusco region). Torrential rains with the potential to cause deadly floods (e.g. along the Tumbes River) and landslides are common during this period. The 2017 rainy season was particularly devastating. More than a million people across Peru were affected by torrential rains - which resulted in major flooding and landslides and more than 100 fatalities - from December 2016 to April 2017. The northwest of the country was particularly hard hit.
Travelers should be aware that roads are generally poorly maintained and roads in mountainous areas can be particularly dangerous; fatal car accidents are common. It is advisable to only drive during daylight hours in rural areas and along the Pan-American Highway.
Highway banditry is also an issue in rural areas.
For long distance travel, consider traveling by air. All major destinations are served by an airport. No Peruvian airlines appear on the European Union's "blacklist" of airlines that are banned from EU airspace due to substandard security practices.
For security reasons, never take an unlicensed taxi (see CRIME section).
Summers (December to February) along the coast are hot (26°C to 30°C) and winters are cool (10°C to 18°C) and foggy. In the Andes, the dry season lasts from May to September and the rainy season from October to April; temperatures there are high during the day (25°C) but nights are cool. The same seasonal conditions are also seen in forested zones (in the east); temperatures, however, tend to be higher (35°C in the summer).
Voltage: 220 V ~ 60 Hz