Portugal Country Report
The post-election alliance between the Socialist Party (Partido Socialista: PS), the left-wing Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda: BE), and Unitary Democratic Union (Coligação Democrática Unitária: CDU) has so far shown a higher degree of stability than initially expected given the divergent ideological positions of its components. This rests, however, on a benign external environment and a sustained growth path; if either of these change, instability risks would increase sharply, since the far-left parties would most likely not agree to further spending cuts. The risk of large and disruptive strikes and protests is mitigated by the PS’s policies of easing the cost-cutting regime. A return to austerity would most likely result in an increase in protests andstrikes. Portugal is facing moderate security risks, stemming particularly from terrorism.
Portugal's benign social climate and high security standards, with low crime rates and rare strikes, offers a generally positive operational environment. Furthermore, its competitiveness benefited from past reforms focusing on improving education levels, containing nominal wage growth, reducing public-sector bureaucracy, improving infrastructure, making it easier to start/close companies, and easing tax payments. Excessive and slow bureaucracy remains a persistent problem, however, as does corruption in public works contracts. The PS's push for less austerity and a review of the privatisation programme is likely to keep industrial action at low levels. Isolated sectoral strikes related to collective bargaining, particularly affecting ports, marine cargo, and the public sector, areprobable.
Portugal does not face a high terrorism threat, either domestic or international, and the risk is likely to remain moderate. There is no group advocating political violence present in the country. Theft of military-grade equipment for black-market transactions is a concern. The most credible terrorism threat is the possibility of a low-capability attack by a lone actor. Although unlikely, such an attack would most likely come from anarchist or jihadist militants. The most likely targets would be state institutions and foreign embassies in Lisbon, and public places most frequented by foreign tourists.
The risk of inter-state war is likely to remain low, stemming mainly from minor border disputes with Spain over uninhabited islands in the Atlantic (Olivenza and the Savage Islands; known as Ilhas Selvagens in Portuguese), fishing rights, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, being an EU and a NATO member, any disputes are highly likely to be resolved at political and diplomatic level rather than through armed conflict. In addition, the risks are further mitigated by the fact that the two countries are closely interlinked through culture, trade, and economic ties. Beyond Europe, Portugal’s ties with its former colonies are likely to remain stable overall.
The risk of protests and riots in Portugal is likely to remain moderate and it has been overall much lower compared with its regional peers and/or countries hit by economic and fiscal difficulties and bailout requirements (for example, Greece). The risk has been further mitigated after the country exited its bailout programme in 2014 and thanks to the current centre-left administration, which favours easing spending cuts and increasing social welfare spending. Any disagreements over collective bargaining in the transport sector or other professions would be likely to ignite protests. These would, however, be small, infrequent, and almost always peaceful.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for all travelers entering the country from an endemic zone and wishing to travel to the Azores or Madeira islands.
Hepatitis B : a vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio : a booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Portugal is struck each year by a number of forest fires, some of which cause significant damage. Always obey safety instructions issued by authorities. From June 1st to September 30th, it is strictly forbidden to create fire in forest zones. This interdiction includes camp fires, barbeques, fireworks and firecrackers, matches, candles, and cigarettes. It is also forbidden to smoke on the roads crossing forest areas.
Furthermore, there is a substantial risk of earthquakes in the country; in 1755, Lisbon was destroyed by a powerful earthquake and tsunami, which was responsible for the deaths of nearly 100,000 people. Moreover Portugal as well as Acores and Madera can be subject to dangerous storms.
Beach goers should be aware that ocean currents along Portugal's coasts can be dangerously strong. It is advised to strictly follow advise provided by authorities; a fine of EUR 55 is imposed for swimming when a beach flag is red or yellow.
The quality of public transportation is high. However, it is necessary to be vigilant due to the presence of pickpockets on public transport, especially the Lisbon tramway system (electricos number E25 and E28).
The Portuguese motorway network is in good condition. Most of the country is connected by physical roads, except in very remoted areas or in historical centers. The toll system is entirely electronic. After taking a picture of the license plate, the payment can be done by direct debit or in a post office. This last option is only possible if the license plate is Portuguese. If you are driving a vehicle with a foreign license plate, it is necessary to consult the Portuguese toll website.
Driving in the Acores can be challenging due to the narrow paved streets, blind curves and herds of livestock on countryside roads. Unlike continental Portugal, in the Acores, toll payments cannot be made directly. Violations of road regulations are registered by radar and sent to the offender by mail.
Buses and taxis are reliable. It is advised to check the price of a taxi ride on the meter before paying. It is recommended not to use informal taxi companies. In the Acores, taxis do not have meters: the fare is based on a starting fare price plus an indicated kilometric rate. Buses are inexpensive. The services start at 07:00 and usually finish at 20:00 depending on the destination.
Portugal is served by five international airports: Acores - João Paulo II airport (PDL), Faro (FAO), Lisbon - Humberto Delgado airport (LIS) -, Madera - Cristiano-Ronaldo airport (FNC) and Porto - Porto-Francisco Sá-Carneiro airport (OPO)-.
The Acores (PDL) and Madera (FNC) airports are subject to temporary closures due to strong winds.
Portugal has a Mediterranean climate in the south and an oceanic climate in the north.
The average annual temperature inland is 13°C in the north and 18°C in the south. Springs and summers are generally sunny while autumns are rainy and windy. In the winter temperatures can fall very low in the north of the country (-12°C) while being very high in the summer in the south (44°C). Coastal regions have a milder climate, with temperatures fluctuating between -2°C on the coldest winter mornings to up to 37°C during the summer.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz