Country Reports

Republic of Macedonia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

FYR Macedonia's government stability has improved, but there is still an elevated risk of an early election in the one-year outlook. In general, the political environment is prone to volatility. An early election is probable along with the presidential election in April–May 2019. The ruling centre-left Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM) would probably seek to increase its parliamentary representation to gain a more stable majority for passing legislation. In January 2019, the government managed to gain the support of opposition MPs and garnered the required two-third majority in parliament for the change of the country's name as established by the agreement with Greece. The adoption of reform-oriented policies, such as improving the efficiency of public administration and the judiciary's independence, is likely to be occasionally obstructed by a lack of a stable majority with a strong consensus in parliament. The country had previously experienced an overall deterioration of democratic standards and weakening of institutions, with the risk of companies facing bribery requests remaining high. The business environment is favourable for foreign investors, with low tax rates and an easy process of starting a business. Even after a successful change in the country's name, EU membership would be unlikely before 2028, given the need for fundamental judiciary reforms. Nationalist protests against the change in the country's name and issues regarding the Albanian minority are probable. They pose a moderate likelihood of damages to public buildings. IHS Markit forecasts growth to accelerate from 0% in 2017 to 2.6% in 2018 and 3.6% in 2019, driven by strong growth in exports and an eventual recovery in investments. © 2019, IHS Markit Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.
Last update: January 19, 2019

Operational Outlook

Despite a number of initiatives, FYR Macedonia’s bureaucracy remains complex and inefficient, which has a direct effect on business performance. Corruption in the public administration and judiciary is likely to remain an obstacle for businesses. Labour legislation favours employers and strikes rarely affect private companies. Major cargo disruption due to industrial action in the transport sector is unlikely. Despite increases in large-scale investment programmes, the transport infrastructure is still relatively underdeveloped. International funding has a significant role in financing infrastructural projects. EU funds for transport infrastructure projects are likely to increase.

Last update: January 10, 2019



The risk of low-level terrorist attacks by ethnic Albanian militants in northern and western parts of FYR Macedonia has reduced. Government and police buildings and personnel have previously been key targets. Provided that there were reports that returnee fighters from the ranks of the Islamic State in Syria in Iraq are present around Skopje, the risk of an attack by a lone actor exists. On the other hand, the likelihood of well-planned Jihadist attacks to be conducted in the country is still low. Law enforcement and intelligence capacity to tackle terrorist activities in the case of returnees is still limited, but is likely to see improvements.

Last update: December 8, 2018

Social Stability


Anti-government demonstrations attracting up to several thousand people are likely in Skopje. They pose an elevated risk of limited violent incidents, including scuffles between protestors and police and superficial damage to government buildings and nearby vehicles. The general security situation has improved since the end of hostilities between security forces and ethnic-Albanian rebels in August 2001, which had threatened to plunge the country into civil war. Environmental protests are likely against transport infrastructure and energy projects.

Last update: December 8, 2018

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks


It should be noted that Macedonia is situated in an active seismic zone and is prone to earthquakes. Forest fires frequently occur in the summer. Flooding can also occur.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Driving conditions in Macedonia are relatively precarious as not only is reckless driving common, but roads are frequently uneven and poorly lit, especially in rural areas. Furthermore, the majority of roads in mountainous regions of the country do not have guardrails, despite the presence of sharp drops; in winter, snow and ice exacerbate these hazardous driving conditions.

Travelers are advised against using public transportation, which is aging and overcrowded.

Both adverse weather conditions and high levels of pollution may cause flight delays or cancelations during winter (see HEALTH section).

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Macedonia has several different climates, Mediterranean, continental, or mountainous, depending on the region. Temperatures range greatly between winter and summer.

In the mountains, summers and falls are hot and dry while winters are cold (0°C) and snowy. The valley regions enjoy a milder climate.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: 389
Police: 192
Ambulance: 194


Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019