Country Reports

Rwanda Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Rwanda's regulatory framework is generally liberal and corruption risks are low. However, the political environment is generally repressive. The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) continues to dominate the political landscape, with parties genuinely opposed to the government routinely denied the freedom to operate. President Paul Kagame was re-elected for third term in August 2017 with 98.8% of the vote, following a 2015 constitutional referendum which cleared the way for him potentially to remain in office until 2034. The United States was “disturbed by [voting] irregularities", but foreign donors are unlikely to reduce their financial assistance to the Rwandan government sufficiently to threaten government stability. Reduced global commodity prices, particularly of agriculturalproducts and minerals, will weigh negatively on external balances and pressure the overall balance of payments.

Last update: September 4, 2018

Operational Outlook

Rwanda is working to attract foreign direct investment by improving, for example, the ICT sector and creating a more conducive business environment, including through targeted tax holidays and reduced corporate tax rates. Although corruption exists, Rwanda is among the least corrupt countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in both the public and private sectors. Infrastructural challenges in landlocked Rwanda, particularly poor roads outside of population centres, present an impediment to investment. However, the government is trying to overcome such challenges, including through its membership of the regional East African Community (EAC) bloc.

Last update: September 4, 2018



With anti-government militants largely confined to operating in exile in neighbouring countries (primarily DRC), insurgency within Rwanda is largely absent and is unlikely to extend beyond brief and infrequent cross-border raids targeting security forces, which often fail to even inflict casualties. Such raids are most likely in the northwest (particularly Rubavu and Musanze districts) and south (particularly Rusizi and Nyaruguru). The notable decrease in grenade attacks since 2013 is likely attributable to security forces' more proactive approach. Further grenade attacks will likely be rare, but are most probable in peripheral urban areas (with lower security) in Kigali, in Rwanda's northwest, and along the Burundian border.

Last update: September 4, 2018

War Risks

The efficacy of Rwandan security and intelligence services means that civil war is unlikely. This is despite slowly growing opposition in the ruling Rwandan Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais: RPF) and among the public to President Paul Kagame continuing in office, which constitutional changes allow him to do until 2034. Despite deteriorating relations with Uganda and Burundi, and the growing presence of (Uganda-sponsored) anti-RPF militants in eastern DRC, escalation to interstate war with any of Rwanda's neighbours is unlikely. Instead, Rwanda will more likely seek to counter these threats by continuing and selectively increasing its support to its armed proxies in eastern DRC and Burundi.

Last update: September 4, 2018

Social Stability


Rwanda is very unlikely to experience significant civil unrest, with vigilant security and intelligence services usually preventing any large-scale protests or demonstrations. Mass mobilisation of government opponents is unlikely, and did not occur in the aftermath of the 2017 presidential election. Those most discontented are more likely to leave for the DRC, Uganda, or Burundi, where they may join anti-government armed groups, rather than organise against the government at home. Rare grenade attacks are a probable channel for the expression of political discontent and are most likely in peripheral areas of Kigali and other urban centres, particularly in the northwest.

Last update: September 4, 2018

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for all travelers over one year of age entering the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: November 27, 2013

Natural Risks

Very high

Storms and severe floods can impact the country during the rainy season, which are known to cause landslides, especially in rural areas.

Rwanda's infrastructure is vulnerable to seismic and volcanic activity. The most significant concern is Mount Nyiragongo volcano, and active volcano located within the DRC, near the Rwandan border. In January 2002, eruptions killed 47 people and destroying much of Goma (DRC). Violent eruptions may occur, and those in the region should monitor the situation.

Most recently, in August 2015, a 5.8-magnitude earthquake centered in Bukavu, eastern DRC, was felt as far as western provinces of Rwanda, though no casualties were reported.

Last update: February 13, 2018



The national road network is generally kept in good condition, especially roads from Kigali to all major towns. Despite the upkeep of the roads, driving after dark should be avoided as the roads are unlit and driving standards in the country are poor; serious collisions, often involving overtaking vehicles, are common. 

Travel using 4x4 vehicles is recommended on rural and dirt roads, especially during the rainy seasons (main wet season March-June; low wet season October-November), during which some roads become impassable.

Police checkpoints are common throughout the country; vehicles and luggage may be searched. Speed limits should be respected to avoid getting fined. The national speed limit is 70 to 90 km/h (19 to 25 mi).

All drivers must have valid vehicle insurance. If responsible for an accident, a prison sentence from three to six months may be imposed.

It is advisable to avoid travel using taxi-bikes ("motos") due to the relatively high number of serious accidents. Mini bus services are somewhat safer, though they are still prone to accidents. Orange-stripped taxis are generally safe.

Rwanda has made a concerted effort to open itself to foreign investment and tourism, and as a result the country's infrastructure is undergoing significant development. A number of quality hotels have opened in Kigali as well as other tourist areas (e.g. in and around Ruhengeri for visitors wishing to see gorillas in Virunga National Park, in Nyungwe Forest National Park, and in Akagera National Park). Infrastructure remains more limited in rural and isolated areas.

The power grid is in poor condition and blackouts occur frequently, including in the capital (though most high-end hotels will have a generator). Kigali also suffers from water shortages, especially during the dry season, when water access is often cut.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Practical Information


Rwanda has an equatorial climate but temperatures are tempered by high elevations. Kigali, the capital, is situated at 1500 m above sea level. There are two rainy seasons: from February to April and again from November to January. Heavy rains are common during these two periods. During the dry season, temperatures are pleasant.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +250

There are no emergency services in Rwanda.


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: January 21, 2014