Country Reports

Saudi Arabia Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

Two large-scale, countervailing forces are currently dominating the Saudi economic and political outlooks for 2020: the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus pandemic and related cutbacks to both domestic and external demand, and a prolonged period of depressed oil prices. We expect that the COVID-19 virus crisis is likely to push the economy into a recession in 2020. IHS Markit expects Saudi GDP to contract by -8.4% in 2020.Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) has centralised political control. The detention of at least three senior family members on 6 March was almost certainly done at his command. As well as the king's brother and nephew, those detained included a serving interior minister and serving head of a military intelligence branch, in addition to the commander of joint forces in Yemen, Fahd bin Turki bin Abdulaziz Al Saud on 1 September. It is likely that MBS's motives were one or a combination of the following: to consolidate power ahead of his father's passing, to prevent a coup, or, least likely, merely to keep his opponents off balance. It is highly unlikely that any members of the family will now be willing to question his succession.There is a high risk of Iranian attacks on Saudi energy assets following the US killing of Iran's Qods Force General Qassem Soleimani in Baghdad on 3 January. Without a definite promise of US support, it is very unlikely that Saudi Arabia's leadership would commit to military escalation or retaliation. Both of Bin Salman’s flagship foreign policy interventions – the boycott of Qatar and the war against Houthi militia in Yemen – have been costly and open-ended, and are weakening close regional co-operation with the United Arab Emirates.
Last update: September 12, 2020

Operational Outlook

Foreign investors are likely to face corruption-related challenges and lack of transparency, but the Vision 2030 plan has involved significant improvement in online registration for business. Business for foreign companies is usually facilitated with a necessary local partner. Reforms for online registration for business licences were implemented in 2019 and significantly improved trade commerce. Market entry, navigating bureaucratic procedures, and compliance with government regulations are expedited if a partnership is struck with a senior royal or members of a small group of powerful clans. Such associations reduce operational delays, particularly in gaining customs.

Last update: June 17, 2020


Very high

The Islamic State's capabilities in Saudi Arabia have failed to improve since mid-2016. Any jihadist groups in Saudi Arabia would likely aim to exacerbate social divisions and exploit the crown prince's social reforms, test security measures, demoralise security forces, and demonstrate the Saudi state's inability to guarantee security. In addition to attacks on security forces and Shia targets, the risk of attacks on princes, pro-government clerics, government officials, and religious sites is elevated, as is the risk of one-off attacks involving shooters or suicide bombers on venues considered "un-Islamic".

Last update: July 16, 2020


Saudi Arabia has faced persistent challenges in restricting human trafficking, drugs smuggling and, to a lesser extent, arms smuggling, particularly due to its long, porous borders and corruption at border entry points. Violent street crime in cities is unlikely. The main drug smuggling issues stem from growing domestic consumption of synthetic amphetamines and hashish smuggled from Syria, Lebanon, Yemen, and Egypt. The Saudis are investing heavily in border forces and monitoring equipment, but cross-border tribal networks complicate the implementation of truly effective measures. Saudi officials estimate that the seized amounts represent only about 10% of the total amount entering the kingdom.

Last update: July 16, 2020

War Risks

There is a high risk of interstate conflict in the Gulf in 2020, driven by the risk of confrontation between Iran and the US in the Gulf. In the event of a sudden escalation involving US military assets, Saudi Arabia's leadership will likely seek to negotiate an end to any potential conflict. Additionally, Iran reneging on its Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action commitments raises the potential for a US strike on Iran. Iranian awareness of the qualitative superiority of the US deterrent maritime presence in the Gulf mitigates the risk of deliberate escalation by Iran leading to interstate war.

Last update: June 24, 2020

Social Stability


A low-level insurgency in Eastern province's Qatif region has been contained by the Saudi security forces and is unlikely to promote broadening civil unrest among the Shia minority. In 2020, if public spending restrictions constrain the monarchy's ability to distribute patronage, and the government fails to deliver on promises to improve services and address housing shortages, larger and more frequent protests, including in universities, would become more likely in Saudi cities.

Last update: July 16, 2020

Health Risk

Very high

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever (YFV) transmission and over one year of age and for travelers who have been in transit >12 hours in an airport located in a country with risk of YFV transmission.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication (for a trip to the south or the west of the country only) - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

Foreign visitors should be aware that Saudi Arabia's weather can reach extremes during certain seasons. Temperatures sometimes climb to 50°C (122°F) or higher and power outages often occur during heat waves, particularly in the west.  Flooding is common in the northern and western parts of the country, particularly between November and March.

Sand and dust storms often occur in the country and can disrupt road and air traffic.

Last update: April 5, 2019



All flights to and from Qatar have been suspended since June 2017 until further notice, and the Saudi-Qatari land border is closed.  Saudi Arabia (along with Egypt, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates) has also severed diplomatic ties with Qatar due to accusations that the country was funding terrorist organizations in the region.

The UK government has banned passengers flying direct to the United Kingdom from Saudi Arabia from transporting any electronic device larger than a standard-sized smartphone (16 cm x 9.3 cm x 1.5 cm / 6.3 in x 3.5 in x 0.6 in) in carry-on luggage. This includes laptops, tablets, e-readers, cameras, DVD players, and video games, which will have to be stowed in checked luggage for the duration of the flight. A similar ban previously instated for flights to the United States was lifted in July 2017.

Foreigners should be aware that travel by car within Saudi Arabia can be dangerous. Reckless driving causes a high number of road accidents and hundreds of deaths each year.

Public transportation systems are being developed in the country but are not yet operational. However, buses connect major cities.

By law, taxis must be booked in advance, even at the airport. Most taxi drivers do not speak English. Women are not permitted to ride in a taxi alone or with someone from the opposite sex other than her family or husband. However, authorities are usually accommodating for foreigners.

The railway network consists of one line linking Riyadh and Dammam. Five trips, each taking four to five hours each, are available daily. Women traveling on their own can only do so in first class.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Saudi Arabia's climate is arid all year long. Summers are very hot and dry, winters mild along the coasts and cooler inland. A rainy season (albeit with low levels of rainfall) lasts from October to April along the western coastal plains. In the center of the country (Nedj) nights are cool and days are scorching. The north and the south of the country is desert.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +966
Police: 999
Fire Dept.: 999
Ambulance: 999


Voltage: 127/220 V ~ 60 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019