Country Reports

Sierra Leone Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

President Julius Maada Bio of the Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP) was elected in April 2018 after narrowly defeating then-incumbent Ernest Bai Koroma’s All People’s Congress (APC) party. APC controls a 47% share of seats in parliament versus the SLPP’s 35% share. The APC will probably disrupt but not block legislation during 2019 by staging walkouts and voting abstentions. This comes in retaliation to a judicial commission of inquiry tasked with prosecuting opposition APC members allegedly involved in corruption in banking, construction, energy, and mining. For instance, Koroma was on 16 January questioned by the authorities. IHS Markit forecasts real GDP growth in Sierra Leone of 5.3% in 2019, reflecting a recovery in agricultural production and services after the Ebola outbreak that caused GDP growth to be revised in 2017 from 6.1% to 3.8%. However, the mining sector – which accounts for 79% of total exports by value – is underperforming after Tonkolili, the country’s largest iron ore mine, closed in November 2017. Both parties agree that corporate tax increases and stricter enforcement are measures required to meet fiscal revenue shortfalls. Miners of commodities such as bauxite, diamonds and rutile will probably face backdated withholding taxes and demands for other perceived arrears. Telecommunications companies are likely to face arbitrary tax demands. The revenue shortfall is exacerbated by Bio’s new spending commitments, which include USD123.1 million for free education under a supplementary budget approved in December 2018. Separate to this, the IMF in November 2018 approved a new 43-month, USD172.1-million Extended Credit Facility subject to semi-annual review. Non-payment risks probably will increase for procurement contracts and infrastructure projects; outstanding arrears totalled USD1.4 billion in March 2018. Cost-savings would probably be sought by cancelling road construction contracts and diesel-fuelled power agreements. The USD315-million Mamamah Airport project was cancelled in October 2018.
Last update: March 27, 2019

Operational Outlook

President Julius Maada Bio has finalised a commission of inquiry that throughout 2019 will investigate and prosecute alleged corrupt activities by former president Ernest Koroma's All People's Congress (APC) government (2007–18). The commission has legal powers and the political will to prosecute APC members involved in banking, construction, energy, and mining. Government procurement and budgetary oversight will probably gradually improve in 2019. Labour unrest primarily affects the mining sector, lasting around seven days, triggered by poor relations with foreign management and job losses. High-value property damage is unlikely.

Last update: March 26, 2019



Islamist militants are highly likely to prioritise targeting other West African countries, including Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Senegal, which are host to significant Western commercial and political interests, and higher numbers of nationals. This is despite Sierra Leone's ongoing military involvement as part of a UN mission against Islamist militant groups in Mali, and previously in Somalia. A Mali-based group did not list Sierra Leone as a priority target and is highly unlikely to pose a credible threat because of their limited geographical reach and operational capability to attack the country.

Last update: January 4, 2019

War Risks

The withdrawal of the Guinean army from the disputed village of Yenga in August 2012 removed the primary trigger for interstate war. Political violence was limited around the March 2018 general election and subsequent by-elections, with ex-combatants not being mobilised. Renewed civil war is unlikely because of the military's improved capabilities and professionalism since civil conflict ended in 2001. Government forces are able to deal effectively with any potential non-state armed group. This was demonstrated by the end of the United Nations peacebuilding mission in 2014, which successfully disarmed and reintegrated anti-government forces.

Last update: March 26, 2019

Social Stability


Fighting and arsons attacks between rival supporters are probable during election periods, especially in the capitals of Kenema, Kono, and Port Loko districts, as well as in Waterloo near the capital, Freetown. An imminent trigger for protests by opposition party supporters, probably congregating outside the Supreme Court in Freetown, are corruption-related prosecutions targeting high-profile former government officials throughout 2019. Armed officers of the Operation Support Division typically respond by escalating to the undisciplined use of lethal force, presenting risks to bystanders, including journalists.

Last update: March 26, 2019

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for all travelers over one year of age entering the country.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

Freetown is regularly affected by heavy rains between March and July. The lack of adequate infrastructure hampers proper drainage. Consequently, the low areas of the city and the main roads are often flooded and impassable. Structures built on the hills of the city are also affected. Mudslides and collapsing buildings are common during this period. It is recommended to become familiar with the areas at risk and to ride with a sports utility vehicle (4x4).

Last update: April 5, 2019



Several international companies offer flights to and from Europe and other African capitals. There are no domestic flights.

From Freetown-Lungi International Airport (FNA) access to the capital is difficult. By car, the trip can take between four and five hours. A ferry connects the airport to the capital but it is often overloaded and the wait time can be very long. Water taxis and private speedboat charters provide the fastest option, but passengers may get wet during the 20-30 minute ride, particularly during inclement weather. Western governments formally advise against all travel by canoe.

Except for main highways, roads outside of Freetown are rarely paved and typically in poor condition, more so during the rainy season. Driving outside the capital should only be done in a four-wheel-drive vehicle.

Dangerous driving conditions created by poorly maintained roads are exacerbated by locals' aggressive driving habits, overloaded vehicles, and poor vehicle maintenance. Moreover, all night travel should be avoided due to the lack of public lighting and traffic signals. Travelers should be aware that traffic accidents may draw large crowds that occasionally become aggressive or violent. In the case of such an incident, travelers should remain inside their vehicle and drive immediately to the nearest police station.

In Freetown and in the rest of the country, due to the risk of theft in traffic, it is recommended to ensure that all vehicle doors are locked and windows are rolled up.

Official police checkpoints at which drivers are required to stop are common throughout the country. Carry adequate identification at all times. Children also often set up illegal roadblocks in the middle of the road to ask for money. This is more common during the weekend on the roads leading to beach resorts. If you indicate that you do not wish to stop, you will be free to pass.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Sierra Leone's climate is generally tropical and humid but there are significant differences between the climate along the coast and the climate in mountainous regions. Temperatures are high throughout the year, as are humidity levels. The rainy season begins in April-May with violent thunderstorms and strong winds, and ends in November. Rainfall is heaviest in the summer (July to September), particularly in the south. Inland regions receive less rain than coastal regions, which often experience floods. Freetown, the capital, is situated at a high elevation and is spared from floods. During the dry season (December to March) days are hot and sunny. Ocean winds often lower coastal temperatures and the Harmattan, a hot and dry trade wind from the Sahara, lowers humidity levels in the interior of the country when it passes through.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +232
Police: 999


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019