Somalia Country Report
Rival clans are likely to initiate impeachment proceedings against President Mohamed in early 2018, resulting in a relatively orderly transition to the parliamentary speaker. Even if Mohamed remains in power, there will be delays to implementing a security-sector reform programme endorsed by bilateral partners in December 2017. The capability of government forces to take over from the regional AMISOM in combating Al-Shabaab will consequently be weakened. Disputes among the regions are also motivating regulatory conflicts during devolution that delay oil exploration in Dharoor and Nugaal. Piracy groups in Galmudug and Puntland are active but have a low success rate against commercial shipping.
Funds disbursed by donors to the government are difficult to monitor. The newly established Financial Governance Committee is slowly improving public procurement and oversight of ministries, which are susceptible to clan interference. These developments are in line with Prime Minister Ali-Khaire's strategy to tackle the misappropriation of public funds. Despite changes in personnel, the finance and interior ministries, and SNA's logistics department will continue posing compliance risks. Investors face out-of-court demands to protect contracts signed with Puntland and are exposed to fraud in the land and finance sectors. Labour unions are weak.
The Somali National Army (SNA) and regional AMISOM mission are embarked on a joint offensive targeting southern Somalia, supported by US air power. The SNA is, however, unlikely to prove capable of retaking significant territorial control, especially because external support will prove unsustainable and poorly co-ordinated through 2020. Al-Shabaab will also take advantage of deteriorating security in Puntland to expand vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) attacks there, with the intention of targeting Bosaso port. VBIED attacks in Mogadishu are highly likely to be conducted against the airport, hotels, police stations, and government buildings.
Somaliland's new president is unlikely to successfully mediate a territorial dispute with neighbouring Puntland, which involves the deployment of ground forces and mechanised units in the disputed Sanaag and Sool regions. Galmudug is, however, now likely to improve relations with Sufi-aligned ASWJ militia, although mediation is prone to break down. Galmudug's boundary dispute with Puntland is unlikely to be resolved in 2018, with exchanges of small-arms and artillery fire likely between forces occupying Mudug's capital Galkayo. A decision favouring Somalia in a maritime boundary dispute with Kenya is unlikely to provoke military retaliation.
Disputes over the ongoing devolution process trigger violent protests between rival clans in Galkayo, Galmudug region and Garowe, Nugaal region. Protests triggered by wage reductions are likely to disrupt access to Berbera port in Somaliland for less than 24 hours because labour is poorly organised. Protests are also likely at Bosaso port over unfavourable commercial decisions causing limited disruption to freight cargo operations. Military wage arrears in Puntland motivate protests by security forces involving roadblocks and armed occupation of government buildings in Garowe and Bosaso.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required for all individuals traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).
Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Roads throughout the country are in poor condition as they are generally neither maintained nor lit at night and traffic lights are rare. As such, driving can be a dangerous activity; it is advisable to avoid all road travel after nightfall. Additionally, landmines and IEDs are an ever present danger.
Illegal roadblocks, highway banditry, and other violent crime can occur at any time in any locality. When traveling by car, doors should be locked and windows rolled-up.
All road travel should be undertaken with an armed escort, in a convoy, and in an all-terrain vehicle. Always travel with sufficient stocks of water, food, and fuel, as well as the necessary equipment to deal with breakdowns (spare tire, jumper cables, etc.). Always carry an effective means of communication and back-up.
Operations at Mogadishu's Aden Adde International Airport (MGQ) are regularly suspended with little to no warning. Additionally, the airport and aircraft operating out of it are susceptible to attack, as was the case in February 2016, when a bomb was smuggled onto a flight. Security procedures and checks have been enhanced at MGQ; however, the fact that a bomb was able to be carried onto the plane in the first place indicates Al-Shabaab may have agents employed within the facility.
Cuts to water services and power outages are common across the country.
Somalia has an arid climate which is slightly more temperate along the coast.
There are two rainy seasons, from March to May and again from September to December. The air is very hot and dry between December and February. In the north, temperatures are generally higher than in the rest of the country and the region also receives less rain. The coastal regions are very dry. During the summer months, monsoon winds bring slightly lower temperatures.
There are no emergency services in Somalia.
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz