Country Reports

Tanzania Country Report

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Risk Level

Very High


Executive Summary

President John Magufuli has centralised decision-making processes through the secretariat and central committee of his ruling Revolution Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi: CCM). There is limited scrutiny of legislation. The CCM dominated the November 2019 local polls and is likely to dominate legislative and presidential elections in October 2020. Magufuli is the CCM presidential candidate. The 2020/21 budget prioritises hydropower, railway and airport construction, but government outlays for development projects are unlikely to meet budgeted totals, given weak revenue collection, probably increasing reliance on non-concessional project financing. Disruption to the tourism industry and agricultural exports due to the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to exacerbate budgetary shortfalls. IHS Markit forecasts that real GDP growth in Tanzania will be 1% in 2020.Taxes and local-content requirements are yet to be agreed upon in negotiations to develop a USD30-billion liquefied natural gas terminal. Equinor, the lead negotiator with the government, has reportedly stated that it will not sanction the terminal until 2022. This reflects uncompetitive fiscal and regulatory terms of the proposed Host Government Agreement versus those of peer countries and a low oil price environment. Near-shore production-sharing agreements (PSAs) and off-take agreements are earmarked for renegotiation, probably in 2021. The government seeks greater participation and take. Renegotiations of deep-sea non-producing PSAs are also likely, but the government has stated that any changes should not "adversely" affect investors. This is because these contracts are already uncompetitive versus peer countries.Some communities in the Lindi, Pwani, and Tanga regions support Islamist militancy. Edged-weapon attacks by lone actors target government officials and police. Cross-border gun attacks by Mozambique-based militants against villagers around Tandahimba near the Mozambican border are also likely. Violence is likely to become more frequent around the 2020 presidential and legislative elections, when violent political protests are probable in Zanzibar.
Last update: September 26, 2020

Operational Outlook

Tanzania's anti-corruption agency has no independent authority to prosecute commercial cases and is controlled by the president. Demands for bribes and facilitation fees are increasing as the ruling party seeks rents to fund 2020 election campaigns. These demands are likely to target primarily the business interests of factional rivals to the president within the ruling CCM. Copper exports transported by rail from Zambia face disruption when train workers strike over pay disputes. Gold mines face disruption caused by probable retrenchment during 2020, which is likely to be exacerbated by the economic impacts of COVID-19.

Last update: June 18, 2020



Small jihadist groups will probably form during 2019 and 2020, especially in the Mtwara, Pwani, and Tanga regions. The groups are supported by radical Salafist preachers. Hotspots are Mtwara, Masaguru, and Nanyumbu along the southeastern border with Mozambique, and between Kibiti and Mazomora in Tanzania's Pwani region. Edged-weapon and small-arms attacks targeting ruling party officials and the police will probably become more frequent leading up to Tanzania's presidential and legislative elections in October 2020. There are currently no indications of financing and training by other Islamist militant groups. Communities along the Tanzania-Mozambique border are integrated, facilitating the travel of militants (and attacks) in both countries.

Last update: July 7, 2020


Violent crime increasingly targets foreign expatriates and tourists in urban Tanzania, particularly the largest city, Dar es Salaam. Typical threats include express kidnap and the robbery of personal items. Extra-judicial vigilante groups have begun to form in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Mwanza to fight crime since 2013. Although somewhat effective, some of these forces undermine the rule of law.

Last update: July 7, 2020

War Risks

Tanzania is highly unlikely to intervene militarily in neighbouring Burundi's civil conflict after a new president was elected there in January 2020 and the former president died in June, increasing likelihood of militia disarmament. A dispute with Malawi over the sovereignty of Lake Nyasa is very likely to be resolved through international arbitration, probably delaying a resolution. Military escalation by either side to interstate war is highly unlikely.

Last update: July 4, 2020

Social Stability


Anti-government protests are likely during the October 2020 general election. It is particularly likely that protests will take place during Zanzibari elections, probably involving arson attacks against ruling party offices, disrupting tourism. Security forces are likely to pre-empt and quickly disrupt any attempts by the main opposition parties to conduct protests during the 2020 general election. Riot police typically escalate to using lethal force. Protests in Zanzibar would also be triggered by the government arresting opposition members, or by any announcement that officially suspended the constitutional reform process.

Last update: July 7, 2020

Health Risk


Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over one year of age.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: April 5, 2019

Natural Risks

Very high

The Rift Valley, an active fault line, stretches through the center of the country (from the north to south) and minor tremors occur sporadically. The last significant earthquake (5.7-magnitude) occurred in September 2016 in Kagera region of northwest Tanzania.

Rainy seasons (March-May for the big rainy season and November-December for the small one) often result in deadly flooding, which also results in significant property and infrastructural damage. Emergency response efforts during natural disasters are restricted.

Last update: April 5, 2019



Visitors should be aware that roads in the country are in poor condition, and traffic laws are rarely followed or enforced. Renting a car is not advisable due to the high frequency of deadly accidents that occur. Most Western governments state that a very high level of vigilance is necessary along the Arusha-Nairobi route, while travel at night is especially advised against due to a high number of deadly accidents (4000 per year). Temporary fuel shortages are also fairly common. Emergency response services are for the most part non-existent, especially on rural interior roadways; be prepared to perform any necessary mechanical maintenance.

Public transportation should be avoided (buses, Bajaj three-wheeled taxis, and Boda Boda motorcycle taxis). Book a private car service or take taxis through a legitimate provider; do not take taxis hailed from the street.

In the past several years, there have been three disasters with ferries traveling between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar and between the islands of Zanzibar, resulting in the death of hundreds of people. Travelers are advised to ensure that they are using a reputable ferry company, and not to board a ferry believed to be overloaded or unseaworthy.

Rail travel is uncomfortable, limited, and unreliable. There have also been a number of accidents on railways.

Last update: April 5, 2019


Due to energy shortages, power outages occur with some regularity, including in Dar es Salaam. Water access may also be limited.  

Last update: April 5, 2019

Practical Information


Tanzania has a tropical climate with cooler temperatures in the highlands. The long rainy season lasts from March until May with more abundant precipitation along the coast and on the country’s islands. During this period temperatures are high (30-35°C), as are humidity levels. The long dry season lasts from June until October during which period rain is rare throughout the country; days tend to be sunny and pleasant. A second shorter rainy season is observed in November and December and a short dry season in January and February.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +255
Police: 17
Fire Dept., Ambulance: 18


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Last update: April 5, 2019