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Country Reports

Tanzania Country Report

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Risk Level

Low
Moderate
Elevated
High
Very High
Severe
Extreme

Overview

Executive Summary

President Magufuli enjoys support from the highly centralised ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party's 'old guard', indicating a leadership challenge is unlikely in 2018. The government has invoked sovereign control over natural resources. Consequently, the newly separated energy ministry will proceed to review existing shallow-sea natural gas contracts from January, particularly those with large domestic supply obligations. Radical Islamists are reintegrating returning Al-Shabaab fighters in Coast, Morogoro, Mtwara, Pwani, and Tanga regions, but resulting capability is limited to conducting edged-weapon and small-arms attacks against law enforcement.

Last update: March 27, 2018

Operational Outlook

Anti-corruption investigations are likely to target diamond, gold, and tanzanite contracts signed between 2008 and 2015. Other targets include emergency (diesel-fueled) power-purchasing arrangements and road construction contracts, especially those finalised during the previous president's term. Government-owned coal miners and related transactions affiliated with former president Benjamin Mkapa (1995–2005) are unlikely to be targeted this year. Copper exports transported by rail from Zambia to Dar es Salaam port face disruption, for up to two weeks, caused by striking train workers. Gold mines in northern Tanzania face disruption in response to retrenchment measures.

Last update: March 27, 2018

Terrorism

High

Al-Shabaab militants returning from Somalia are capable of integrating into radical Islamist networks based in Coast, Morogoro, Mtwara, Pwani, and Tanga regions. Low-capability knife and small-arms attacks are the most likely mode of attack, probably targeting security forces. Government confirmation in November 2017 that constitutional reform will not resume is also likely to enable these actors to exploit sectarian grievances in semi-autonomous Zanzibar. This increases the risk of edged-weapon and grenade attacks against ruling party assets during elections in 2020. Separately, the ‘Jabha East Africa’ Islamist militant group was most likely neutralised before early 2017.

Last update: March 27, 2018

War Risks

Elevated

Tanzania is unlikely to militarily intervene in neighbouring Burundi’s ongoing civil conflict, even if the Burundian president conducts a constitutional referendum in May 2018 to extend term limits. A dispute with Malawi over the sovereignty of Lake Nyasa is likely to be resolved through international arbitration, probably delaying a resolution beyond 2018. This threatens Malawi’s issuing of licences for oil and gas exploration, and increases the likelihood of low-level skirmishes between border patrols, but military escalation to interstate war remains unlikely.

Last update: March 27, 2018

Social Stability

Very high

Security forces are likely to pre-empt and quickly disrupt any attempts by the main opposition Chadema parties to stage protests against probable disputed by-elections on 17 February 2018 in Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro. Separately, protests on the semi-autonomous island of Zanzibar would be triggered by prospective government announcements to officially suspend the constitutional reform process, as well unfavourable resolution to offshore boundary disputes. During election periods, Zanzibar’s protests typically escalate to arson attacks against ruling party offices, disrupting tourism activities.

Last update: March 27, 2018

Health Risk

Severe

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over one year of age.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: November 27, 2013

Natural Risks

High

The Rift Valley, an active fault line, stretches through the center of the country (from the north to south) and minor tremors occur sporadically. The last significant earthquake (5.7-magnitude) occurred in September 2016 in Kagera region of northwest Tanzania.

Rainy seasons (March-May for the big rainy season and November-December for the small one) often result in deadly flooding, which also results in significant property and infrastructural damage. Emergency response efforts during natural disasters are restricted.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Transportation

Elevated

Visitors should be aware that roads in the country are in poor condition, and traffic laws are rarely followed or enforced. Renting a car is not advisable due to the high frequency of deadly accidents that occur. Most Western governments state that a very high level of vigilance is necessary along the Arusha-Nairobi route, while travel at night is especially advised against due to a high number of deadly accidents (4000 per year). Temporary fuel shortages are also fairly common. Emergency response services are for the most part non-existent, especially on rural interior roadways; be prepared to perform any necessary mechanical maintenance.

Public transportation should be avoided (buses, Bajaj three-wheeled taxis, and Boda Boda motorcycle taxis). Book a private car service or take taxis through a legitimate provider; do not take taxis hailed from the street.

In the past several years, there have been three disasters with ferries traveling between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar and between the islands of Zanzibar, resulting in the death of hundreds of people. Travelers are advised to ensure that they are using a reputable ferry company, and not to board a ferry believed to be overloaded or unseaworthy.

Rail travel is uncomfortable, limited, and unreliable. There have also been a number of accidents on railways.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Infrastructure

Due to energy shortages, power outages occur with some regularity, including in Dar es Salaam. Water access may also be limited.  

Last update: February 13, 2018

Practical Information

Climate

Tanzania has a tropical climate with cooler temperatures in the highlands. The long rainy season lasts from March until May with more abundant precipitation along the coast and on the country’s islands. During this period temperatures are high (30-35°C), as are humidity levels. The long dry season lasts from June until October during which period rain is rare throughout the country; days tend to be sunny and pleasant. A second shorter rainy season is observed in November and December and a short dry season in January and February.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +255
Police: 17
Fire Dept., Ambulance: 18

Electricity

Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz

Outlets:

Last update: January 30, 2014