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Tanzania Country Report

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Risk Level

Low
Moderate
Elevated
High
Very High
Severe
Extreme

Overview

Executive Summary

Decision-making processes are centralised around President John Magufuli and his ruling Revolution Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi: CCM), which dominates parliament. There is limited scrutiny of legislation. A by-election held on 16 September 2018 prompted by further opposition defections indicates the CCM will dominate local polls in December 2019, increasing Magufuli's likelihood of re-election in 2020. The approved 2018/19 budget prioritises large-scale hydro-power and railway construction, whereas liquefied natural gas development faces setbacks. Near-shore production sharing agreements will be renegotiated in 2018, targeting greater government participation and take. There exist communities sympathetic to Islamist militancy. Self-generated edged-weapon attacks typically targetgovernment officials in Pwani and Tanga regions; there are no indications of improving capability.

Last update: October 10, 2018

Operational Outlook

Tanzania's anti-corruption agency has no independent authority to prosecute commercial cases and is controlled by the president. Demands for bribes and facilitation fees are increasing as the ruling party seeks rents to fund upcoming election campaigns. Outstanding high-profile corruption cases probably relate to road construction and power-purchasing arrangements. Diamond, gold, and tanzanite contracts signed between 2008 and 2015 will probably be singled out for scrutiny during ongoing reviews. Copper exports transported by rail from Zambia face disruption when train workers strike over pay disputes. Gold mines face disruption caused by probable retrenchment in 2018.

Last update: October 10, 2018

Terrorism

High

Jihadist ideology is present and propagated by local mosques and Wahhabi educational institutions. This creates the conditions for self-generated edged-weapon, arson, and small-arms attacks targeting government officials, police, and Christian-related property in the Pwani (Coast) and Kagera regions. Less likely, smaller cells could form, albeit with a limited small-arms attack capability targeting government officials and theft of cash-in-transit. This would focus on the area between Kibiti and Mazomora in Coast region. Insecurity will probably worsen because the government refuses to clarify semi-autonomous Zanzibar's constitutional status, increasing the likelihood of attacks against the ruling party in this tourist hub during elections.

Last update: October 10, 2018

War Risks

Tanzania is unlikely to militarily intervene in neighbouring Burundi's ongoing civil conflict, even following the Burundian president completing a constitutional referendum there on 17 May 2018 that extended term limits from five years to seven. A dispute with Malawi over the sovereignty of Lake Nyasa is likely to be resolved through international arbitration, probably delaying a resolution beyond 2018. This delays Malawi's issuing of licences for oil and gas exploration, and increases the likelihood of low-level skirmishes between border patrols. However, military escalation to interstate war is unlikely.

Last update: October 9, 2018

Social Stability

High

Security forces are likely to pre-empt and quickly disrupt any attempts by the main opposition parties to conduct protests during by-elections in 2018. The next parliamentary by-election will be held on 13 October in Lindi region. Protests are also triggered by the government arresting opposition members, especially in Zanzibar. Riot police typically escalate to using lethal force. Separately, protests in Zanzibar would be triggered by any announcement that officially suspended the constitutional reform process. During election periods, including the 2019 local poll and 2020 presidential election, Zanzibar's protests are likely to involve arson attacks against ruling party offices, disrupting tourism.

Last update: October 10, 2018

Health Risk

Severe

Vaccinations required to enter the country

Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission and over one year of age.

Routine Vaccinations

Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.

Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).

Yellow Fever: A vaccine is available for children over the age of one year.

Other Vaccinations

Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).

Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).

Meningococcal Meningitis: For prolonged stays, or in case your travels will put you in close contact with a local population affected by an epidemic of the disease (for children over the age of two years).

Malaria: Recommended preventive medication - mefloquine (sometimes marketed as Lariam) or doxycycline (sometimes marketed as Vibramycin).

For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.

Last update: November 27, 2013

Natural Risks

Very high

The Rift Valley, an active fault line, stretches through the center of the country (from the north to south) and minor tremors occur sporadically. The last significant earthquake (5.7-magnitude) occurred in September 2016 in Kagera region of northwest Tanzania.

Rainy seasons (March-May for the big rainy season and November-December for the small one) often result in deadly flooding, which also results in significant property and infrastructural damage. Emergency response efforts during natural disasters are restricted.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Transportation

Elevated

Visitors should be aware that roads in the country are in poor condition, and traffic laws are rarely followed or enforced. Renting a car is not advisable due to the high frequency of deadly accidents that occur. Most Western governments state that a very high level of vigilance is necessary along the Arusha-Nairobi route, while travel at night is especially advised against due to a high number of deadly accidents (4000 per year). Temporary fuel shortages are also fairly common. Emergency response services are for the most part non-existent, especially on rural interior roadways; be prepared to perform any necessary mechanical maintenance.

Public transportation should be avoided (buses, Bajaj three-wheeled taxis, and Boda Boda motorcycle taxis). Book a private car service or take taxis through a legitimate provider; do not take taxis hailed from the street.

In the past several years, there have been three disasters with ferries traveling between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar and between the islands of Zanzibar, resulting in the death of hundreds of people. Travelers are advised to ensure that they are using a reputable ferry company, and not to board a ferry believed to be overloaded or unseaworthy.

Rail travel is uncomfortable, limited, and unreliable. There have also been a number of accidents on railways.

Last update: February 13, 2018

Infrastructure

Due to energy shortages, power outages occur with some regularity, including in Dar es Salaam. Water access may also be limited.  

Last update: February 13, 2018

Practical Information

Climate

Tanzania has a tropical climate with cooler temperatures in the highlands. The long rainy season lasts from March until May with more abundant precipitation along the coast and on the country’s islands. During this period temperatures are high (30-35°C), as are humidity levels. The long dry season lasts from June until October during which period rain is rare throughout the country; days tend to be sunny and pleasant. A second shorter rainy season is observed in November and December and a short dry season in January and February.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +255
Police: 17
Fire Dept., Ambulance: 18

Electricity

Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz

Outlets:

Last update: January 30, 2014