United Arab Emirates Country Report
The UAE has an advanced transportation infrastructure and local governments rely on large-scale infrastructure investments to stimulate growth. Bureaucracy is an obstacle in the northern emirates, although it is reduced if businesses are located in free-trade zones and also if partnered with influential local actors. The UAE is highly dependent on foreign labour and the risk of sporadic labour unrest is most often linked to non-payment of wages and, occasionally, poor working conditions. The threat of deportation remains a significant deterrent against strike action.
The UAE's participation in the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen against the Houthi Movement and anti-Islamic State coalition and normalisation with Israel make it a target for attacks, with well-secured airports, ports, and energy facilities being probable aspirational targets. The risk of militant attacks is moderate and likely to rise, with increasing capabilities demonstrated by Yemen's Houthi Movement threats in 2019 to strike UAE assets. Well-paid security forces, stringent selection criteria, an extensive civil surveillance network in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and minimal tolerance for religious extremism reduce the likelihood of successful attacks, with the most likely scenario being low-capability attacks targeting Western expatriates or security forces in public spaces.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a regional hub for organised criminal cartels, although their activity is generally focused outwards and it does not have a direct impact on broader security risks in the country. Authorities have identified financial crime and drug smuggling as particular issues to be addressed, with Dubai and surrounding Emirates most affected.
It is highly likely that all public spaces and entrances at international airports will be monitored, with access heavily dependent on presentation of biometric passes and facial recognition scanners, allowing the identification of any potential visitors that are blacklisted by the GCC and international security agencies. Mobile phone communication across all networks is likely to be under close state surveillance, in line with existing UAE counter-terrorism legislation, reducing the likelihood of disruptive behavior or of terror attacks being successfully organised.
The country has attracted criticism from human rights groups over its human trafficking and child labour violations. Prostitution is outlawed but remains widespread; sex trade in the UAE is typically linked to human-trafficking networks. Most reported crimes occur among the expatriate majority, rather than foreign companies or the Emirati minority.
Attempts by the UAE to de-escalate the risk of military confrontation with Iran in the Gulf are likely to be successful outside a conflict between the US and Iran, although this has been complicated by the normalisation agreement between the UAE and Israel. There is an elevated risk of contained naval incidents near non-demarcated waters with the UAE while Iran remains under US sanctions. IHS Markit assesses that Iranian and Houthi aggression in 2019, targeting maritime, hydrocarbon, and aviation targets in the UAE and Saudi Arabia, demonstrated that the UAE is unlikely to openly oppose Iran in the Gulf, preferring to negotiate instead.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Typhoid Fever: If your travels take you to regions with poor sanitary conditions (for children two years old and up).
Rabies: For prolonged stays in an isolated region (for children from when they can walk).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
Finally, it should be noted that dehydration is a significant risk during the summer due to extreme temperatures. Summer also often brings sand storms and floods, such as the floods that struck Abu Dhabi in April 2011. This severe weather is not rare. In 2014, several cities in central and northern UAE were hit by floods, mostly due to insufficient or failing drainage infrastructure.
Dubai international airport is considered to be one of the most important in the world, with one of the highest number of yearly passengers (80 million in 2015). It serves 260 destinations on all continents, thanks to Emirates Airline.
Al Maktoum airport is the secondary airport in the city and mainly serves Cargo flights.
Abu Dhabi international airport is expanding with Etihad airways, Emirates Airline's rival.
All flights to and from Qatar have been suspended since June 6, 2017, until further notice due to a diplomatic rift.
The US government has announced that passengers flying non-stop to the United States from the UAE will be banned from transporting any electronic device larger than a standard-sized smartphone (16 cm x 9.3 cm x 1.5 cm / 6.3 in x 3.5 in x 0.6 in) in carry-on luggage. This includes laptops, tablets, e-readers, cameras, DVD players, and video games, which will have to be stowed in checked luggage for the duration of the flight.
Luggage is strictly controlled at the airport. French diplomatic authorities recommend to their citizens that Emirati authorities have the power to accept or decline entrance to foreigners. Many French nationals have been declined entrance to the UAE (even in Dubai) by border police and have been sent back to their country of origin. No explanation is provided to travelers sent back to their country of origin. However, it is part of preemptive counterterrorism measures taken by local authorities. The road network is very good, however driving could be dangerous. Car accidents are frequent due to bad habits of drivers and dangerous driving, especially by youth on Thursday and Friday evenings due to speeding and animals crossing the road. Authorities are very strict with regards to traffic laws. Automatic radar traps are widely used and fines can be expensive. The UAE has a "zero tolerance" policy on drinking and driving.
If going off-road in the desert, it is advised against going alone. Inform someone of your itinerary, check your vehicle, be sure to have means of communication, mechanic tools, and enough fuel and water. In general, rental cars do not have insurance for going off-road.
Taxis are available in major cities and are trustworthy. They all have a metric system. Uber is available throughout the country.
Emirates Express buses connect Dubai and Abu Dhabi, with departures every 40 minutes between Al-Ghubaibah (Dubai) and Hazza bin Zayed terminal (Abu Dhabi). The travel time is around 2 hours. The Al Ghazal bus company also connects Dubai to Sharjah.
Travel by sea is possible, however the waters in the Gulf are politically sensitive. Some areas are forbidden to access. Coast Guard patrols are frequent. It is important to have your passport at all times.
The UAE has an arid-subtropical climate and is characterized by high temperatures and low levels of rainfall.
Summers are very hot and humid and winters are generally mild. From December to March temperatures range between 10°C and 30°C and can climb as high as 48°C with humidity rates of 100% in the summer.
Voltage: 220 V ~ 50 Hz