Officials in Brazil declared a state of emergency for Minas Gerais state in response to an ongoing outbreak of yellow fever. At least 15 fatal cases have been confirmed since December 2017, including in the state capital of Belo Horizonte. Additionally, at least 15 deaths were reported in São Paulo state between January 12 and 19; a total of 36 fatal cases have been recorded in the state since January 2017. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a new travel advisory for Brazil on January 17, urging all travelers to São Paulo state to get vaccinated against the disease at least ten days before traveling due to the risk of a larger outbreak.
Symptoms of yellow fever - a mosquito-borne disease - generally appear within three to six days following infection and include fever, chills, muscle and back pain, vomiting, headaches, and, in more serious cases, hemorrhaging and organ failure. The vaccine provides life-long immunity.
Various other mosquito-borne diseases are also present in Brazil, in both urban and rural areas, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and the Zika virus.
Individuals in or planning travel to Minas Gerais and São Paulo states are advised to stay abreast of local epidemiological developments, consult their doctor regarding vaccination options, and continue to protect themselves against insects due to the presence of various mosquito-borne diseases (e.g. by wearing covering clothing, using insect repellent, and sleeping in screened-in and/or air conditioned rooms).
A full list of zones where the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends vaccination is available here.